Mental Disorders

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  1. Causes of Mental Disorders
    • a physicological probelm biochmeial imbalnace
    • a structural problem (organic, decrases size of one lobe)
    • Related to present situation or past traumatic experience
  2. Catergories of Mental Disorders
    • Affective Disorders: Depression, bipolar
    • Neurosis: OCD, Anxiety, Phobia
    • Psychosis: schizophrenia
    • Somatoform Disorder: hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorder
  3. Affective Disorders
    Characterized by disturbances in mood or emotion, states of extreme happiness or sadness occur and mood can laternate without cause. Extreme moods can be intense and unrealistic
  4. Depression S&S
    • persistent sadness, hopelessness or tearfulness
    • decreased Energy, persistent fatigue
    • Feelings of guilt or slef sriticism
    • Irritable agitated sleep distrubed
    • Decreased motivation, appetit and libido
    • Thoughts of death or suicide
  5. Mania
    • Constantly Active
    • Impulses immediately expressed
    • Unrealistic Activity levels, Extreme self confidence "superman"
    • Disorganized thoughts and speech
    • Few Pt's will have onlyl a manic disorder - more will be bipolar
    • Bust happy doing things with bipolar
  6. Neuroses
    • A group of disorders characterized by an irrational fear & maladaptive strategies in dealing with stress or everyday stimuli
    • Ex. Panic disorder, obsessive, compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, phobias PTSD
  7. Panic Disorder
    • Increase discharge of neurons in temporal lobe, biochemical abnormalities, irritablilty of the limibic system
    • Symptons: intense fear without provocation, fear or impending doom or death, SNS response
    • Rx: antianxiety or antidepressant meds, counseling
  8. Anxiety Disorders
    • Constant high tenson
    • oversreacts to life situations
    • Apprehension worry
    • Talk them through it
  9. Schizphrenia
    • Thought disorder misrepresentation of reality leads to deusions hallucinations
    • includes a variety of syndromes
    • Affects: thinkings - problem organizing thoughts, Feelings - inappropriate expression of emotion, Actions - eifficulty meeting lifes demands
  10. Somatoform Disorders
    • Physical Symptoms associated witha psychological cause
    • Hypochondriasis and conversion disorder
  11. Hypochondriasis
    • Excessive fear of illness
    • Believes taht minor illness or medical problems indicate a serious of life threatening disease
  12. Conversion Disorder
    • Physical Complaints of neurological basis with no underlying cause
    • Paralysis is a common finding
    • May manifest as blindness, deafness parathesis
    • Diagnosis can only be made after uling out a physical cause
  13. Alzheimers Disease
    • Progressive loss of intellectual function
    • Eventually interferes with work relationships and presonal hygiene
    • Incidence increased after age 65 but can have early onset 30-60
    • cause is unknown, genetic, environmental factors
  14. Alzeimer's Disease Patho and Diagnosis
    • Patho: cortical atrophy, widening of suci, dilated ventricles, neurofibrillary tangels, deficit of neurotransmitter
    • Diagnosis: Based on observation and ruling out other diagnoses
  15. Alzeimers S&S
    • Poor recent memory, irritability lapses in social restraints, personality changes,
    • Lake of initiative, Repetitive behavior,
    • Impairment in judgement/problem solving
    • Late: Doesn't recongnize own family, cannot do basic self care, incontinet, no interest in environment
    • Put in nursing home
  16. Other Causes of Dementia
    • Vascular
    • Creutzfeldt - jakob disease
    • AIDs
    • Alchoholism
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Mental Disorders
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