Anatomy Test 3

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moses1424
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84776
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Anatomy Test 3
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2011-05-09 14:30:37
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Anatomy Test
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Anatomy Test 3
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  1. Lymph flows torwards...
    The heart
  2. Structure of lymphatic Capillaries
    Endothelial cells overlap to form one-way minivalves and are anchored by collagen filaments, preventing collapse of capillaries
  3. Lymphatic Cappilaries are absent from...
    Bones, Teeth, Bone Marrow, CNS
  4. Lymphatic Collecting vessels travel with?
    • •Collecting vessels in the skin travel with superficial veins
    • •Deep vessels travel with arteries
    • •Nutrients are supplied from branching vasa vasorum
  5. Right lymphatic duct drains?
    right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax
  6. Thoracic duct...
    arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body
  7. Each Duct empties lymph into
    venous circulation at thejunction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body
  8. Lymph is propelled by?
    • Pulsations of nearby arteries
    • Contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatics
  9. Macrophages
    phagocytize foreign substances and help activate T cells
  10. Dendritic cells
    capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes
  11. Reticular cells produce...
    stroma that supports other cells in lymphoid organs
  12. Lymphatic follicles (nodules) are....
    solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells
  13. Lymph Nodes
    • Principal lymphoid organs of the body
    • Embedded in connective tissue, in clusters along lymphatic vessels
    • Near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body
  14. Lymph Node Function.
    • 1.Filter lymph—macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris
    • 2.Immune system—lymphocytes are activated and mount an attack against antigens
  15. Medullary cords
    extend inward from the cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells
  16. Lymph sinuses contain....
    macrophages
  17. Circulation in the Lymph Nodes
    • •Enters via afferent lymphatic vessels
    • •Travels through large subcapsular sinus and smaller sinuses
    • •Exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels
  18. Largest Lymhoid Organ?
    • Spleen
    • Served by splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit at the hilus.
  19. Function of the spleen.
    • •Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response
    • •Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris
  20. Structure of the Spleen
    • •Two distinct areas
    • •White pulp around central arteries
    • •Mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions
    • •Red pulp in venous sinuses and splenic cords
    • Rich in macrophages for disposal
    • of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens
  21. Thymus size with age...
    • •In infants, it is found in the inferior neck and extends into the mediastinum, where it partially overlies the heart
    • •Increases in size and is most active during childhood
    • •Stops growing during adolescence and then gradually atrophies
  22. •Simplest lymphoid organs
    Tonsils
  23. Palatine tonsils
    at posterior end of the oral cavity
  24. Lingual tonsils
    grouped at the base of the tongue
  25. Pharyngeal tonsil
    in posterior wallof the nasopharynx
  26. Tubal tonsils
    surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
  27. Tonsil Crypts
    trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter
  28. Peyer’s patches and the appendix
    • Destroy bacteria, preventing them from breaching the intestinal wall
    • •Generate “memory” lymphocytes
  29. Peyer’s patches
    • •Clusters of lymphoid follicles
    • •In the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine
    • •Similar structures are also found in the appendix
  30. Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
    • Peyer’s patches, tonsils, and the appendix (digestive tract)
    • Lymphoid nodules in the walls of the bronchi (respiratory tract)
    • Protects the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter
  31. lymph nodes are apparent
    by the _______ week of embryonic development
    • 5th
    • These arise from the budding of lymph sacs from developing veins
  32. Lymphatic organs (except
    the thymus) arise from?
    mesoderm
  33. The thymus (endodermal
    origin) forms as an outgrowth of the...?
    pharynx
  34. organs are poorly developed at birth?
    lymphoid Except for the spleen and tonsils,
  35. Innate Immunity is...
    Nonspecific
  36. Adaptive Immunity is ?
    Specific Defense
  37. 2 Lines of defense for Innate Immunity
    • First line of defense is external body membranes (skin and mucosae)
    • Second line of defense is antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells. Inflammation is its most important mechanism
  38. Adaptive Defense does what?
    • Attacks particular foreign substances.
    • Takes longer to react.
  39. Keratin is resistant to?
    weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxins
  40. Protective Chemicals that inhibit or destroy microorganisms
    • •Skin acidity
    • •Lipids in sebum and dermcidin in sweat
    • •HCl and protein-digesting enzymes of stomach mucosae
    • •Lysozyme of saliva and lacrimal fluid
    • •Mucus
  41. Respiratory system barriers.
    • Mucous
    • Cilia
  42. Macrophages develop from?
    Monocytes to become the chief phagocytic cells.
  43. Kupffer cells live where?
    Liver
  44. microglia cells live where?
    Brain
  45. Free macrophages wander...?
    through tissue spaces
  46. Become phagocytic on encountering infectious material in tissues.
    Neutrophils
  47. opsonization
    coating of pathogen by complement proteins or antibodies
  48. Natural Killer (NK) Cells
    • Large granular lymphocytes
    • Target cells that lack “self” cell-surface receptors
    • Induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells
    • Secrete potent chemicals that enhance the inflammatory response
  49. Inflammatory Response
    • Triggered whenever body tissues are injured or infected
    • Prevents the spread of damaging agents
    • Disposes of cell debris and pathogens
    • Sets the stage for repair
  50. Inflammatory mediators
    • Histamine (from mast cells)
    • Blood proteins
    • Kinins, prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and complement
  51. Interferons
    • Attack microorganisms directly
    • Hinder microorganisms’ ability to reproduce
    • also activate macrophages and mobilize NKs
  52. Lymphocytes produce what type of interferon?
    gamma (g)
  53. Most (other than lymphocytes) WBCs produce what type of interferon?
    Alpha
  54. Fibroblasts produce what type of interferon?
    Beta
  55. Complement
    • ~20 blood proteins that circulate in an inactive form
    • Include C1–C9, factors B, D, and P, and regulatory proteins
    • Major mechanism for destroying foreign substances
    • Amplifies all aspects of the inflammatory response
  56. complement fixation
    • C1 binds to the
    • antigen-antibody complexes
  57. Alternative complement pathway
    Triggered when activated C3, B, D, and P interact on the surface of microorganisms
  58. Benefits of moderate fever
    • Causes the liver and spleen to sequester iron and zinc (needed by microorganisms)
    • Increases metabolic rate, which speeds up repair
  59. Humoral Immunity
    antibody mediated

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