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What are motives and how do they function?
A motive refers to the interests, impulses, habits, conventions, and desires that function as incitements to action within particular situation 99
Crick’s 8 terms to analyze motives in an audience.
Belief 101,reason 105,value 109,feeling 111,emotion 114,imagination
117, attitude 120
Why are we so defensive about our beliefs?
They are our the basic components of our understanding of the world 102
How does reason relate to beliefs, when do we use it, and what does reasoning enable us to do?
It is the capacity to manipulate symbols for the purposes of creating practical frameworks of belief. We use reason when we are tryin to “rebuild” out ideological beliefs.106
What are values and how are values related to beliefs and reason?
If beliefs and reason are the materials of building for ideology or structure of belief than value is the blue prints or guiding ideals
Crick doesn’t say so, but feelings are ...
- something like the mood(s) a speaker wants an audience to feel.
- Emotions are divided into those which attract to or repel us from things.
How can emotions be used by the rhetor?
Emotions are dramatized feelings that orient us
to things within our immediate environment that stand out as significant. A rhetor can use this by attracting the audience with emotions like love curiosity pity generosity envy greed or repelling them rom a subject with emotions like anger fear shame or cowardice
How can recalled and reinterpreted memories influence/affect an audience?
Memories can support certain attitudes or challenge them
How is imagination related to memory?
The are counterparts memory is the interpation of what has been; imagination is the invention of what might be.
What is the “possible” and how might it be properly & effectively used by the rhetor?
To persuade some one of the new possibility; could be used to inspire the people
What is the relationship between attitudes and behaviors?
Attitudes are habitual practical responses toward the people objects and events in our everyday environment based on the likes and dislikes. The relationship between attitudes and behaviors is whenever something is present a consistent active response will follow. If the same behavior does not follow with the normal attitude towards something then it is not a genuine attitude.
How difficult is it to change attitudes in some cases and why?
Changing attitudes is difficult because of normal habits of responding to certain things it can only be changed by acting differently than we acted previously
If one changes one’s beliefs, will attitudes change along with them?
The changing of ones belief can help motivate attitude change, helps motivate people to abandon old habits and take up new ones
What is ethos? Know its classical 3 parts.
- The speakers’ authority to influence an audience.
- Classical 3 Parts are virtues, practical wisdom, goodwill
What is the audience’s role in regard to ethos?
The audience role is to act according to the image the rhetor constructs
What is inherited ethos?
The actual reputation that a rhetor “carries with them”
How is inherited ethos different from persona?
Persona is created by the speaker while inherited ethos comes from the audience
How are personal stories and forms of delivery important
to inherited ethos?
Both are used to reveal character
What are these “types of personae”?
- apologist (speaker want to avoid attack, tries to look virtuous);
- agent (speaks on behave of some institution);
- partisan (represents an ideology or idea);
- hero (speakers’ personal character mostly dealing with courage)
What is the evoked audience and how does it function for the rhetor?
The attractive image that the rhetor constructs of the audience in order to encourage it to act according to that image.
What is identification and why is it important for rhetors to create it with their audiences?
The strategy of creating a common bond with an audience by drawing parallels between the characteristics of speaker and audience.
How is distinction related to expert testimony and the speaker’s perceived expertise & experience?
It is what makes the speaker stand out as having superior knowledge to the audience.
How does polarization work with an audience?
How is it related to credibility/ethos?
Is it potentially related to a fallacy?
- The strategy of dividing an audience into a positive “us” and a negative “them”
- Speaker and audience share an extra connection
- Can result in scapegoating
What are potential ethical risks when using polarization, and how can one reduce ethical reproach in its use?
make the belong related to values or attiitudes rather than social group