Criminalistics Final Exam

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Criminalistics Final Exam
2011-05-10 02:38:19
Criminal Justice Final Exam

end of chapter questions
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  1. What is the application of science to describe law?
    Forensic science
  2. Who devised the Anthropometry system?
    Alphones Bertillon
  3. What is the Bertillon system?
    A system of personal identification using a serises of body measurements.
  4. Who is responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints?
    Francis Galton
  5. Who was the Italian Scientist that devised the first workable procedure for typing dried bloodstains?
    Leone Lattes
  6. Who used a comparison microscope as an indispensable tool of firearms examination ?
    Calvin Goddard
  7. Who applied scientific principles to document examinations first?
  8. Who set up the application of science to criminal investigation and was advacted by the Austrian magistrate?
    A. Gross
  9. Who formed one of the first functional crime labortories in Lyon France?
  10. The transfer of evidence expected to occur when two objects come in contact with each other is known as what concept and who introduced it to forensic science?
    Locard, Locard Exchange Principle.
  11. The first forensic labortory in United States was created in 1923 by which police department?
    Los Angelas California Police Department
  12. Who created the oldest forensic labortory
    August Vollmer
  13. What state is an excellent example of a geographical area in the United States that has created a system of intergrated regional and satellite laboratories?
  14. In contrast to the United States, Britain's crime labotory systemm is characterized how?
    A national system of regional laboratories
  15. What has been the most single important factor for the in the expanson of crime labortory services in the United States?
    Casework increases the growth of crime labortories.
  16. What are the four federal agencies that offer forensic services?
    1. The FBI

    2. The Drug Enforcement Administration laboratories

    3. Alcoholic, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

    4. The U.S. Postal Inspection Service
  17. A decentralized system of crime laboratories currently exists in the United States under what government levels of law?
    1. state

    2. municipal

    3. federal

    4. county
  18. The application of chemistry, physics and geology to identification and comparison of crime- scene evidence is the function of what unit of crime laboratory?
    Physical Science
  19. What Unit of crime laboratory examines blood, hair, fibers and botanical materials?
    Biology Unit of Crime
  20. What crime unit lab. examines body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons ?
  21. What unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of the crime to retrieve evidence for lab. examination?
    Crime Scene Unit
  22. What case set forth the "general acceptance" principle?
    Frye versus United States
  23. What Supreme Court case ruled that assessing hte admissibility of new and unique scientific tests the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of "general acceptance" principle
    Daubert versus Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  24. True or False? The U.S. supreme Court decision in Kumho Tire Co. Ltd. v. Carmichael restricted the "gatekeeping" role of a trial judge only to scientific testimony?
  25. The Florida Case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide discretion that the trial Judge has in matters of scientific inquiry was which case?
    Coppolino versus State
  26. TRUE or FALSE: The expert witness's courtroom demeanor may play an important role in deciding what weight the court will assigne to his or her testimony?
  27. TRUE or FALSE: The testimony of an expert witness incorporates his or her personal opinion relationg to a matter he or she has either studied or examined.
  28. TRUE OR FALSE: The ability of the investigator to recognise and collect crime-scene evidence properly depends on the amount of training received from the crime laboratory.
  29. What medical condition sets in after death causing the skin to appear dark blue and purple in the areas closest to the ground?
    Livor Mortis ---Leave Her on the Ground
  30. TRUE of FALSE: One method for approximating the time of death is to determine body temperature?
  31. What is the medical condition that occurs after death and results in the stiffening of muscles mass. The ridgidity of hte body gradually disappears after 24 hours?
    Rigor Mortis
  32. What is the medical change in post moderm that allow the body to lose heat?
    Algor Mortis ..ALL gone
  33. What is the term that describes all objects that can be establish whether a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or it perpetrator
    Physical Evidence
  34. TRUE of FALSE: Scientific evaluation of a crime scene evidence can usually overcome the results of a poorly conducted criminal investigation.
  35. TRUE of FALSE: The technique of physical evidence collection requires highly skilled individual who must specialize in this area of investigation
    False, an average officer is capable of conducting evidence collection
  36. While at a crime scene are unauthorize personals allowed at the crime scene?
  37. What are the three methods for recording the crime scene?
    1. photography

    2. notes

    3. sketches
  38. How should the crime scene look to meet the most important prerequisite of photographing the crime scene.
    The crime scene should be in its original condition. Nothing should be unaltered.
  39. Photographs should contain overviews as well as what else?
    close up photographs and measurements
  40. What sketch is necessary for an investigator to draw upon first entering the crime scene.
    A rough sketch fit to scale
  41. A detailed search of a crime scene for phyiscal evidence must be conducted in what kind of manner?
    Thorough and systematic
  42. Obivious items of phyiscal evidence are collected, but what other items should be collected during an invesitgation?
    Carriers of trace evidence i.e. bed sheets during a sexual assualt case
  43. In cooperation with the medical examiner or coroner, What seven evidence retrieved from the decease victim should be submitted to the crime laboratory, what should they include?
    1. victims clothing

    2. vaginal, anal swabs if sexual assualt is assumed to be taken place

    3. fingernail scrapings

    4. head and pubic hair

    5. blood (DNA typing)

    6. hand swabs if a gun was fired to recover gun residue

    7. recovered bullets from the victims body
  44. Can trace evidence be removed from the object that carriers it?
    No, is highly unrecommended
  45. How should each item of evidence be recovered at the crime scene?
    seperate containers is recommended
  46. Are ordinary mailing envelopes a recommended packaging material of evidence at a crime lab?
    No, small particles will leak outside of the corners
  47. Are airtight containers recommened for packaging material that contains blood?
    No because the trapping of moisture will result in mold.
  48. What is the general recommendation of packaging clothes removed from a crime scene.
    Clothes should be air dried if wet and placed invidiually in paper bags that have never been used.
  49. What is the recommendation of charred debris recovered from a crime scene?
    Charred debris should be placed in an airtight container to prevent evaporation of air through them that may destroy evidence
  50. What is the purpose of chain of custody in regards to evidence?
    Chain of custody allows the possibility of future legal proceeding to understand with respect to how evidence has been handle.
  51. With the collection of evidence what is necessary for comparison purposes?
    Standard/ reference samples
  52. What did the case Mincey v. Arizona prove
    a warrant is necessary for the a search that doesnt involve direct danger to others
  53. What did the case Michigan v. Tyler do in relations to the Supreme Court?
    Still need a search warrant during the following days of a arson crime scene
  54. What does the process identification provide?
    Identification determines a substance's physical or chemical identiy with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques will permit.
  55. What is needed to identify a substance?
    The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficent to exclude all other substances from consideration.

    A examiner must be able to derive a analytical scheme that will eliminate all but one of the substance from consideration
  56. What does a comparison analysis consist of?
    A comparison analysis offers a reference or standard speciemen to the same test and examination for the ultimate purpose of determining whether they have came from a common origin
  57. What can be said about evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high agree probabilty?
    It possess individual characteristics
  58. What is evidence considered when it is associated with a group and not to a single source?
    Class Characteristic
  59. Is it possible that oe of hte major deficiencies of forensic science is the inability of the examiner to assign exact or approximate probabilty values to the comparison of most class physical evidence?
    It is a deficience to make an exact probabilty, for example a fiber from a nylon sweater would be difficult to find that exact sweater the fiber came from
  60. What is the value of class physical evidence when compared to eye wittness or confessional testimonies?
    Class physical evidence is with data in manner is closers to being free of human error and bias...juries may mangled by what a witness testifies
  61. The weight accorded to physical evidence is left entirely to the trier of fact
    In other words, doctors, scienctist is the avergae Joe's eyes seem trust worthy thus the physical evidence they present has a high value
  62. Can physical evidence be used to exonerate or excluded a suspect from a crime scene?
    Yes, for example of a different blood type is present from that doesn't correspond to the suspect then the suspect was not present at the sceen.
  63. Is the distinction between indvidual and class characteristics easy to make among the forensic world.
    Of course not, scienctist disagree
  64. Can fingerprints be positively identified through the IAFIS database
    IAFIS can narrow down the search and offer hits
  65. What is IAFIS
    Intergrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
  66. CODIS
    Combined DNA Index System
  67. NIBIN
    National Intergrated Ballistics Information Network
  68. SICAR
    Shoe print image capture and retrieval
  69. PDQ
    International Forensic Automotive Paint Data Query
  70. A substance composed of two or more elements is called a
  71. The smallest unit of a compound is called a
  72. What allows matter to have separated definite visible bondaries?
  73. Carbon containing substances are classified as what type of substances?
    Organic Substances
  74. Substances that do not contain carbon are classified as?
    Inorganic Substances
  75. What is the study of the absorption of light by chemical substances
    Spectrophotometry, mostly applicable to organic material associated with drugsm heroin and alcohol
  76. What technique is used to separat a mixtures components? Such as crack
  77. What law describes the distribution of volatile chemical compound between its liquid and gas phases?
    Henry's Law
  78. What kind of solubility of a gas in a liquid is essential for the gas to have a greater tendency to remain dissolved in that liquid
    A higher solubility is essential for the gas to remain dissolved in a liquid
  79. What are the phase characteristics that is essential for Chromatography to occur?
    One phase must be stationary while the other is phase must be moving
  80. What Chromatography technique separates mixtures on the basis of their distribution between stationary liquid phase and a moving gas phase?
    Gas Chromatography
  81. What is the name of the time it takes for a substance to travel through the gas chromatographic column to help identify characteristics of the unknown chemical?
    Retention time
  82. When a solid material is not readily dissolved in a solvent for injection into the gas chromatograph what procedure can be down to alter the phase of the solid?
    Pyrolysis, heating the solid to break it down
  83. What is the technique that uses a moving liquid phase and a stationary solid phase to separate mixtures?
    Thin layer Chromatography
  84. What is the major advantage of high perfomace liquid chromatography ?
    It can take place at room temperature
  85. With colorless chemical compounds what would be a final step of the thin layer development that requires spraying what kind of chemical reagent?
    Visualized Fluoresce
  86. Can thin layer Chromatography provide a positive identification of a substance alone?
    No addition test are necessary due to the fact that numerous substances can travel at equal distances
  87. What technique allows the migration of materials along a stationary phase under the influence of an electrical potential
  88. What can color indicate about a substance in reguards to light
    Color can indicate that a substance absorbs light
  89. Crest to crest measurement provides what length?
  90. What kind of relationship does frequency and wavelength have
    Inversely proportional wavelength
  91. Who is more energentic red light or violet light
    Violet light
  92. What is the name of light that has all its waves pulsating in unison ?
    Coherent light also know as a laser
  93. What law states that the amount of radiation of a substance will absorb directly proportional to its concentration
    Beer's Law
  94. What instrument is used to measure and record the absorption sepcturm of a chemical substance?
  95. What is the function of a monochromator?
    The function of a monochromator is to select a single frequency of light emanating from the spectrophometer's source
  96. What absorption spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of a chemical substance?
  97. What is the technique that exposes molecules to a beam of high energy electrons in order to fragment them
    Mass Spectrometry
  98. Can mass spectrum identify a chemical substance?