American History

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American History
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  1. Between 1865 and 1900, black workers in the South

    A) increased among the skilled laborers.
    B) found more opportunities in the industrializing Southern cities.
    C) seldom engaged in agricultural labor.
    D) were often excluded from industrial jobs.
    D) were often excluded from industrial jobs.
  2. In its attempt to regulate railroad rates during the late nineteenth century, the Interstate Commerce Commission

    A) proved generally successful.
    B) was often opposed by the federal courtsʹ decisions.
    C) found it easy to determine what constituted a reasonable rate.
    D) overruled several decisions made by the Supreme Court.
    B) was often opposed by the federal courtsʹ decisions.
  3. In the period after the Civil War, southern industrial progress

    A) made the South more industrial than the North.
    B) brought general prosperity to the poor people of the South.
    C) failed to occur at all.
    D) was impeded by southern loyalty to the past.

    D) was impeded by southern loyalty to the past.
  4. Between 1865 and 1900, immigrants to the United States who settled on the Great Plains

    A) usually migrated as single males.
    B) came primarily to make their fortunes and return to their native countries.
    C) came largely from Germany, the British Isles, and Canada.
    D) came chiefly from the Soviet Union.

    C) came largely from Germany, the British Isles, and Canada.
  5. In the last three decades of the nineteenth century, Indians on the Great Plains

    A) accepted their removal to reservations without resistance.
    B) generally believed that the United States government had dealt fairly with them.
    C) eagerly abandoned their nomadic ways for the sedentary ways of the whites.
    D) often fiercely resisted white settlement in the area.

    D) often fiercely resisted white settlement in the area.
  6. According to the Plessy v. Ferguson decision,

    A) black voters could be disenfranchised through the ʺgood characterʺ clause.
    B) separate facilities for blacks and whites were illegal.
    C) segregation laws violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
    D) the races could be separated but equal accommodations must be provided.
    D) the races could be separated but equal accommodations must be provided.
  7. The development of agriculture in California during the late nineteenth century wascharacterized by

    A) small family farms.
    B) a concentration on the production of cotton.
    C) large-scale farming.
    D) large profits for the original Mexican landholders
    C) large-scale farming.
  8. An important factor in transforming the nature of American agriculture after the Civil War was

    A) the scarcity of land in the Great Plains.
    B) a decline in international markets for American farm products.
    C) a decrease in the size of the average American farm.
    D) increasing utilization of machinery.
    D) increasing utilization of machinery.
  9. In the 1880s and 1890s, an organization that attempted to aid farmers by promotingcooperative efforts was the

    A) Southern Farmersʹ Alliance.
    B) Farmersʹ Cooperative Commission.
    C) Northern Sharecroppersʹ Alliance.
    D) Progressive Party.
    A) Southern Farmersʹ Alliance.
  10. An important factor in the white manʹs defeat of the Plains tribes was

    A) destruction of the buffalo herds.
    B) general agreement among the Indians not to resist white settlements in the area.
    C) the Indiansʹ refusal to use the horse.
    D) the inability of the Indians to use guns.
    A) destruction of the buffalo herds.
  11. In 1882, as part of a wave of anti-immigrant sentiment, Congress passed the

    A) Strike Act.
    B) Chinese Exclusion Act.
    C) Clayton Anti-trust Act.
    D) American Railway Act.
    B) Chinese Exclusion Act.
  12. As a result of economic developments in the United States during the late nineteenth century,

    A) there was less discrimination against immigrants by native-born Americans.
    B) occupational and class mobility greatly increased.
    C) the United States became one of the major industrial countries of the world.
    D) most American workers enjoyed general prosperity.
    C) the United States became one of the major industrial countries of the world.
  13. The transformation of the American economy during the late nineteenth century resulted in

    A) a stabilization of the economic cycle.
    B) increased instability in the economic cycle.
    C) an end to depressions in the United States.
    D) an increase in farm prices.
    B) increased instability in the economic cycle.
  14. One of the first businesses to reflect the advantages and problems associated with thecorporate structure was the

    A) railroad industry.
    B) steel industry.
    C) oil industry.

    D) milling industry.

    A) railroad industry.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. All of the following describes the American Federation of Labor EXCEPT:

    A) It had one million members by 1900.
    B) It emphasized “bread and butter” issues, such as higher wages.
    C) It welcomed African American workers.
    D) It organized skilled trade workers.
    C) It welcomed African American workers.
  16. The reaction of the Senate investigating committee to Thomas O’Donnell’s testimony concerning his living and working conditions indicated that the senators

    A) were prepared to take immediate action to remedy his circumstances.
    B) had little understanding of the world in which he lived.
    C) clearly understood and sympathized with his problems.
    D) would support a public housing bill.
    B) had little understanding of the world in which he lived.
  17. The ʺnew immigrantsʺ whose migration to the United States increased after 1880 came mainly from

    A) southern and eastern Europe.
    B) Southeast Asia.
    C) northern and western Europe.
    D) China.
    A) southern and eastern Europe.
  18. After the Civil War, the American middle class

    A) demonstrated less interest in shopping than the working class.
    B) had less leisure time than before the war.
    C) enjoyed rising incomes.
    D) found fewer job opportunities.
    C) enjoyed rising incomes.
  19. Success and upward mobility in late nineteenth-century America were generally

    A) unlimited and equal for anyone, regardless of background.
    B) out of reach for hard-working immigrants.
    C) mythic and had no basis in reality.
    D) more available to native-born, middle-class whites.
    D) more available to native-born, middle-class whites.
  20. In the era between 1865 and 1900, American workers

    A) seldom used the strike.
    B) successfully unionized the majority of the workforce.
    C) passively accepted their working conditions.
    D) often protested against their working conditions.
  21. In 1885 in Chicago an architectural urban wonder appeared, known as the

    A) expressway.
    B) Brooklyn Bridge.
    C) skyscraper.
    D) Hoover Dam.
    C) skyscraper.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Public art and civic beautification projects became known as the

    A) “Keep American Green” movement.
    B) “Recycling Campaign.”
    C) “Utopian movement”
    D) “City Beautiful” movement.
    D) “City Beautiful” movement.
  23. Atlanta was known as the “Chicago of the South” because of its proximity to a

    A) high mountains.
    B) railroad hub.
    C) stockyards.
    D) nuclear power plant.
    B) railroad hub.
  24. The social geography of the industrial city in America during the late nineteenth centuryindicated that

    A) all classes tended to live in the same neighborhood.
    B) people tended to be separated by class but not by race.
    C) people tended to be separated by class, occupation, and race.
    D) people tended to be separated by race but not by occupation.
    C) people tended to be separated by class, occupation, and race.
  25. The Chinese met with a violent backlash in the state of

    A) California.
    B) Utah.
    C) Massachusetts.
    D) New York.
    A) California.
  26. New suburbs for elites were promoted by

    A) mining interests.
    B) the working poor.
    C) construction companies.
    D) railroad companies.
    D) railroad companies.
  27. All of the following are true regarding urban bosses EXCEPT they

    A) received bribes and kickbacks.

    B) were rarely corrupt.
    C) helped run city services and political machines.
    D) were charismatic personalities.
    B) were rarely corrupt.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. One of the most famous settlement houses was created in Chicago by

    A) Susan B. Anthony.
    B) Elizabeth Stanton.
    C) Harriet Beecher Stowe.
    D) Jane Addams.
    D) Jane Addams.
  29. A sympathy strike against Pullman was led by

    A) Eugene Debs.
    B) Samuel Gompers.
    C) Nelson Rockefeller.
    D) “Big Bill” Haywood
    A) Eugene Debs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Manufacturing shifted to cities as power systems shifted from water to

    A) solar.
    B) steam.
    C) electricity.
    D) nuclear.
    B) steam.
  31. The major argument used by those opposed to the annexation of the Philippines was that

    A) the Filipinos did not want American rule.
    B) it was un-Christian to have colonies.
    C) it would retard Americaʹs economic growth.
    D) it contradicted American ideals.
    D) it contradicted American ideals.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. An important factor in promoting the shift in American foreign policy after the Civil War was

    A) Great Britainʹs refusal to pay the Alabama claims.
    B) support for Secretary of State Sewardʹs expansionist policy.
    C) the search for markets for American products.
    D) Franceʹs invasion of Mexico.
    C) the search for markets for American products.
  33. An important event influencing the United States decision to declare war with Spain in 1898was the

    A) sinking of the battleship Maine.
    B) Democratic victory in the mid-term election of 1898.
    C) Republican defeat in the election of 1896.
    D) Zimmermann Note.
    A) sinking of the battleship Maine.
  34. Between the Civil War and the Spanish-American War, an important aspect of the missionaryimpulse in American foreign policy was

    A) strict adherence to the Christian concept that all people are equal in the sight of God.
    B) a belief that each country had a right to develop its institutions as it saw fit.
    C) a belief in the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race.
    D) opposition to missionary interference in native cultures.
    C) a belief in the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race.
  35. Which of the following does NOT characterize U.S. views of the Chinese people in 1900? immoral

    A) backward
    B) exotic
    C) immoral
    D) generous
    D) generous
  36. In acquiring the right to build a canal across Panama, the United States

    A) opposed the Panamanian nationalists who wanted independence from Colombia.
    B) carefully respected the sensibilities of the Colombians.
    C) acted in such a way as to gain the respect and admiration of other Latin American
    countries.
    D) promoted a Panamanian revolution against Colombia.
    D) promoted a Panamanian revolution against Colombia.
  37. A major advocate for achieving national power through naval supremacy was

    A) William Jennings Bryan.
    B) Alfred T. Mahan.
    C) John Dewey.
    D) Josiah Strong.
    B) Alfred T. Mahan.
  38. Nineteenth-century Americans tended to believe that in world affairs the United States

    A) should support the establishment of the League of Nations.
    B) had a special mission.
    C) should remain totally isolated.
    D) should commit itself to maintaining world order.
    B) had a special mission.
  39. An increase in American international commerce during the late nineteenth century necessitated

    A) a strong navy.
    B) a decrease in government spending.

    C) a devaluation of the dollar.
    D) a policy of isolation.
    A) a strong navy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. During the 1890s, a group of men led by Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge

    A) endorsed Bryan’s anti-imperialistic concepts.
    B) endorsed a policy of “continentalism.”
    C) opposed American expansion outside the western hemisphere.
    D) promoted a highly nationalistic foreign policy for the United States.
    D) promoted a highly nationalistic foreign policy for the United States.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. A key figure in applying the principles of scientific management to industrial work was

    A) Jane Addams.
    B) Samuel Gompers.
    C) Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
    D) Frederick Taylor.
    D) Frederick Taylor.
  42. During the Progressive Era, trade unions in the United States

    A) enjoyed increasing support from decisions of the Supreme Court.
    B) increased in membership.
    C) almost always succeeded in their strike efforts.
    D) found it increasingly easy to cooperate with management.
    B) increased in membership.
  43. In their crusade to improve the conditions of the poor in America, the social justice progressives

    A) encouraged movie-going as a form of entertainment.
    B) generally supported prohibition of alcohol consumption.
    C) effectively ended prostitution.
    D) recognized the necessity of brothels.
    B) generally supported prohibition of alcohol consumption.
  44. In their effort to organize American workers during the progressive era, the Industrial Workers of the World

    A) stressed the use of the investigative committee to publicize the problems that workers faced.
    B) adopted the philosophy of Samuel Gompers.
    C) relied mostly on political solutions that emphasized protective labor legislation.
    D) welcomed all workers, regardless of skill, race, or gender.
    D) welcomed all workers, regardless of skill, race, or gender.
  45. For blacks, the Progressive Era

    A) meant strong support from the executive branch.
    B) brought an end to segregation.
    C) brought a second Reconstruction.
    D) coincided with the years of greatest segregation in the South.
    D) coincided with the years of greatest segregation in the South.
  46. The muckrakers were important in the progressive movement because they

    A) defended the American system against criticism.
    B) generally opposed social reform.
    C) subverted the democratic system.
    D) publicized what they believed were the problems in American society.
    D) publicized what they believed were the problems in American society.
  47. In general, social justice progressives

    A) believed most vice was determined by genetics.
    B) showed little concern for urban housing problems.
    C) rejected Deweyʹs educational concepts.
    D) stressed the importance of environment in shaping character.

    D) stressed the importance of environment in shaping character.
  48. The novelist whose work helped encourage passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act was

    A) Upton Sinclair.
    B) Lincoln Steffens.
    C) William Dean Howells.
    D) Mark Twain.
    A) Upton Sinclair.
  49. As a leader during the Progressive Era, Theodore Roosevelt

    A) acted very cautiously and quietly.
    B) believed that government regulation of business was undesirable.
    C) opposed conservation programs.
    D) was the first president to support social reform.
    D) was the first president to support social reform.
  50. As a presidential leader, Woodrow Wilson

    A) achieved passage of numerous reform laws.

    B) was weak and ineffective.
    C) opposed any changes in the nationʹs banking system.
    D) cooperated closely with Theodore Roosevelt.
    A) achieved passage of numerous reform laws.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. According to information collected by the U.S. government, American soldiers who served in World War I

    A) came primarily from urban rather than rural areas.
    B) were generally poorly educated and unsophisticated.
    C) almost all had a high-school education.
    D) were almost all over six feet tall.
    B) were generally poorly educated and unsophisticated.
  52. How did ordinary Europeans view Wilson when he arrived in Europe?

    A) They pelted him with eggs and rocks.
    B) They ignored him.
    C) They remained neutral in their opinion of Wilson.
    D) They cheered enthusiastically for him.
    D) They cheered enthusiastically for him.
  53. In terms of its effect on domestic affairs in the United States, World War I resulted in

    A) restrictions on freedom of speech.
    B) a decrease in governmental control over the economy.
    C) an unfavorable governmental attitude toward labor.
    D) an enthusiasm for things German.
    A) restrictions on freedom of speech.
  54. During World War I, Germany attempted to resist the British blockade of the sea routes to Germany by

    A) attacking British ships from German aircraft carriers.
    B) building a fleet larger than the British navy.
    C) use of submarines.
    D) use of rockets.
    C) use of submarines.
  55. During World War I, women in the United States

    A) served in combat.
    B) made few significant contributions to the war effort.
    C) demonstrated that they were unable to assume most of the jobs traditionally occupied by men.
    D) found new employment opportunities.
    D) found new employment opportunities.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. At the beginning of World War I, President Wilson

    A) expressed support for a German victory.
    B) recommended that the United States stop trading with the belligerent countries.
    C) advocated an American alliance with England.
    D) declared a policy of neutrality.
    D) declared a policy of neutrality.
  57. Wilson based his plan for peace among the warring nations on

    A) unconditional surrender by Germany.
    B) American support for a Russian invasion of Germany.
    C) the ten-percent plan.
    D) the Fourteen Points.
    D) the Fourteen Points.
  58. Most historians consider Wilsonʹs decision to exclude Henry Cabot Lodge from the negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to have been

    A) politically shrewd.
    B) unimportant.
    C) an attempt to avoid offending the Republican majority in the United States Senate.
    D) a political mistake.
    D) a political mistake.
  59. By the time that the United States decided to enter World War I

    A) the British and French had essentially defeated the Germans.
    the Italians had defeated the Russians.
    B) the Italians had defeated the Russians.
    C) the Germans had overrun France and were preparing to invade Britain.
    D) fighting in western Europe had become a bloody stalemate.
    D) fighting in western Europe had become a bloody stalemate.
  60. In dealing with the relations between Mexico and the United States, President Wilson

    A) ordered General Pershing to lead an expeditionary force into northern Mexico.
    B) showed little concern for the interests of the Mexican people.
    C) recognized the Huerta government.
    D) improved Mexican-American relations by implementing his idealistic principles.
    A) ordered General Pershing to lead an expeditionary force into northern Mexico.
  61. Government policy toward business in the 1920s was:

    A) laissez-faire.
    B) regulatory.
    C) restrictive.
    D) cooperative.
    D) cooperative.
  62. The tensions and hostilities evident in the United States during the 1920s can be partially explained by

    A) the increase in immigration into the United States from northern European countries.
    B) the fear that foreigners were destroying the American way of life.
    C) the continued dominance of the progressive reform movement.
    D) a decline in religious fundamentalism.
    B) the fear that foreigners were destroying the American way of life.
  63. During the Twenties, the Ku Klux Klan

    A) stressed religious as well as racial nativism.
    B) supported Catholics but not Jews.
    C) operated exclusively in the southern states.
    D) were not politically influential.
    A) stressed religious as well as racial nativism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. In economic terms, the period of the 1920s in the United States could be characterized as

    A) an era of few technological developments.
    B) an era of industrial depression.
    C) an era of agricultural prosperity.
    D) a second industrial revolution.
    D) a second industrial revolution.
  65. Public reaction to the series of strikes that occurred in the United States during 1919 tended to

    A) condemn the actions of the attorney general.
    B) support the justice of the strikersʹ cause.
    C) view the strikers as patriots exercising their right to assembly.
    D) blame the communists for the unrest.
    D) blame the communists for the unrest.
  66. The 1920s represented a period in American history when

    A) urbanization declined.
    B) technological developments had little impact on the American way of life.
    C) a new culture of consumption and pleasure clashed with traditional values.
    D) few people had access to new forms of entertainment.
    C) a new culture of consumption and pleasure clashed with traditional values.
  67. During the 1920s, American foreign policy

    A) opposed the Washington Conference on Naval Disarmament.
    B) supported active American involvement in world affairs.
    C) supported the League of Nations.
    D) reluctantly accepted international power.
    D) reluctantly accepted international power.
  68. The Harlem Renaissance is a term that refers to

    A) black American intellectuals and artists who stressed black pride.
    B) the white American writers who fled to Europe during the 1920s.
    C) a Dutch intellectual movement that greatly influenced American thought.
    D) the name of a jazz group during the 1920s.
    A) black American intellectuals and artists who stressed black pride.
  69. An important aspect of the communications revolution that occurred during the 1920s was

    A) the development of computer technology.
    B) a decline in the importance of advertising.
    C) an expanded use of the telephone.
    D) the widespread use of television.
    C) an expanded use of the telephone.
  70. October 24, the day the stock market plummeted, is known as

    A) ”Red Tuesday.“
    B) "White Friday.”
    C) “Black Tuesday.”
    D) ”Black Thursday.”
    D) ”Black Thursday.”
  71. An attempt by the New Deal to experiment with principles of regional planning was the

    A) National Industrial Recovery Act.
    B) Wagner Act.
    C) Missouri Valley Authority.
    D) Tennessee Valley Authority.
    A) National Industrial Recovery Act.
  72. During the 1930s, a major influence on the lives of middle -class Americans was

    A) lack of electrical appliances.
    B) the dominance of television as the major communications medium.
    C) the radio.
    D) development of air travel.
    C) the radio.
  73. An important factor in bringing about the depression in 1929 was the

    A) excessive prices charged by American farmers during the 1920s.
    B) shallow and superficial nature of prosperity during the 1920s.
    C) fact that only two percent of the American population owned any kind of stock in 1929.
    D) extremely high cost of wages and raw materials during the 1920s.
    B) shallow and superficial nature of prosperity during the 1920s.
  74. During his first 100 days in office, Franklin Roosevelt

    A) continued Hooverʹs policies without adding any new ones of his own.
    B) rushed a bewildering number of bills through Congress.
    C) took cautious but deliberate action to cure the depression.
    D) collected information and advice about curing the depression.
    B) rushed a bewildering number of bills through Congress.
  75. The first woman to serve in a president’s Cabinet was appointed by Franklin Roosevelt to the position of

    A) Secretary of Labor.
    B) Secretary of the Interior.
    C) Secretary of State.
    D) Defense Secretary.
    A) Secretary of Labor.
  76. Roosevelt created the strongest opposition to his administration when he

    A) defended the National Recovery Administration.
    B) advocated social security legislation.
    C) interfered in state elections.
    D) attempted to change the make-up of the Supreme Court
    D) attempted to change the make-up of the Supreme Court
  77. The Bonus Army

    A) broke up urban riots.
    B) formed to distribute aid to the poor.
    C) was composed of veterans seeking their pay bonuses.
    D) acted to prevent violent strikes.
    C) was composed of veterans seeking their pay bonuses.
  78. Relative to the First New Deal, the Second New Deal

    A) attempted to cooperate more with American businessmen.
    B) promoted fewer programs for social reform.
    C) responded to the demand for more social justice.
    D) focused on economic rather than social reform.
    C) responded to the demand for more social justice.
  79. Harry Hopkins, director of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration,

    A) showed little concern for the needs of young people.
    B) considered direct relief highly desirable.
    C) preferred work relief to direct relief.
    D) believed the unfortunate in society should rely exclusively on private charity.
    C) preferred work relief to direct relief.
  80. The New Deal was based upon

    A) socialist principles.
    B) the suggestions made to Roosevelt by President Hoover.
    C) the belief that it was possible to create a just society.
    D) strict economic orthodoxy.
    C) the belief that it was possible to create a just society.
  81. At the Yalta Conference, held in February, 1945, President Franklin Roosevelt

    A) tried to prevent the Soviets from becoming involved in Iran.
    B) sought Soviet help in ending the war in the Pacific.
    C) refused to agree that the Soviets could annex the Kurile Islands.
    D) insisted on excluding the British from participating in the negotiations.

    B) sought Soviet help in ending the war in the Pacific.
    B) sought Soviet help in ending the war in the Pacific.
  82. Why did Americans think that using nuclear bombs against Japan was necessary?

    A) All of the above.
    B) Some wanted to drop the bomb to justify its expensive cost and development.
    C) Some wanted revenge for Pearl Harbor.
    D) A land invasion of Japan would cost many American lives.
    A) All of the above.
  83. The U.S. Congress responded to developments in Europe between 1933 and 1937 by

    A) approving disarmament agreements.
    B) passing a series of neutrality acts.
    C) providing military aid to England.
    D) declaring war on Germany.
    B) passing a series of neutrality acts.
  84. According to the authors of the textbook, President Franklin Roosevelt

    A) anticipated that the Japanese would attack Hawaii.
    B) ordered military leaders to prepare for a possible attack on Pearl Harbor.
    C) did not know that the Japanese planned to attack Hawaii.
    D) deliberately provoked an attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor to force American entry into World War II.
    C) did not know that the Japanese planned to attack Hawaii.
  85. The impact of World War II on American society

    A) retarded the growth of labor unions.

    B) led to a reduction of inflation.
    C) increased the number of Americans who had to pay an income tax.
    D) loosened government control over the economy.
    C) increased the number of Americans who had to pay an income tax.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Once World War II was over, most American women

    A) were expected to return to their traditional roles in the home.
    B) found attitudes toward them radically altered.
    C) had many new opportunities for equal treatment in the workplace.
    D) fought to maintain the opportunities acquired during the war.
    A) were expected to return to their traditional roles in the home.
  87. At the end of World War II, the United States

    A) found its influence in world affairs considerably diminished.
    B) had become the most affluent nation in the world.
    C) returned to its traditional isolationist policy.
    D) had become a debtor nation.
    B) had become the most affluent nation in the world.
  88. Franklin Roosevelt’s decision to change America’s foreign policy during the 1930s was based on

    A) militarism in America.
    B) aggression by certain European countries.
    C) his realization that the New Deal had failed.
    D) his irritation with the isolationists.
    B) aggression by certain European countries.
  89. During World War II, labor unions in the United States

    A) agreed fully with the government’s labor policy.
    B) increased in membership.
    C) in general, refused to cooperate with the war effort.
    D) failed to gain any wage increases for their members.
    B) increased in membership.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. During World War II, in general, the American people

    A) were acutely aware of the horror and destruction of the war.
    B) supported the war through purchase of war bonds.
    C) had little personal experience with the tragedy of the war.
    D) increased their spending on consumer goods.
    B) supported the war through purchase of war bonds.
  91. When Ho Chi Minh established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, the United States

    A) welcomed the creation of a new democratic country.
    B) refused to recognize the new state.
    C) signed a peace treaty with the new state.
    D) sent troops to restore the former government
    B) refused to recognize the new state.
  92. America’s response to the Russian blockade of West Berlin was to

    A) accept the Soviets’ demand that West Berlin be integrated into East Germany.
    B) circumvent it by air.
    C) turn Berlin over to the Soviets.
    D) threaten a major war.
    B) circumvent it by air.
  93. Underlying the Marshall Plan was the assumption that

    A) the United States would not directly participate in the proposal.
    B) economic prosperity brings political stability.
    C) it could convert the Soviet Union to democracy.
    D) Eastern Europe could be freed from Soviet domination.
    B) economic prosperity brings political stability.
  94. After World War II, the Soviet Union

    A) felt little effect from the war.
    B) aggressively pursued a policy of world revolution.
    C) was determined to have a buffer zone for protection of its western border.
    D) believed it was vulnerable on its eastern border.
    C) was determined to have a buffer zone for protection of its western border.
  95. Upon learning that the Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb, the United States

    A) negotiated an arms control treaty with the Soviet Union.
    B) threatened a preemptive air strike against the Soviets’ nuclear laboratories.
    C) slowed down the pace of nuclear research.
    D) authorized the development of the hydrogen super bomb.
    D) authorized the development of the hydrogen super bomb.
  96. After the communists gained control of China in 1949,

    A) Secretary of State Dean Acheson claimed that the United States could have prevented the communist takeover.
    B) the United States repudiated the leadership of Jiang Jieshi
    C) staunch anti-communists accused President Truman of losing China to the communists.
    D) most Americans recognized that their triumph resulted from a long internal conflict within that country.
    C) staunch anti-communists accused President Truman of losing China to the communists.
  97. During the second Red Scare, which developed during the 1950s,

    A) the right of due process for those accused was often ignored.
    B) W.E.B. Du Bois became a leading defender of the American way of life.
    C) labor unions were generally unaffected by the controversy.
    D) academics suffered few restrictions on their freedom of speech.
    A) the right of due process for those accused was often ignored.
  98. The containment policy of the Truman administration

    A) became the basis for American foreign policy in the post -World War II period.
    B) had been designed by Dean Acheson.
    C) fostered stronger relations between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    D) had little support from policymakers in Washington.
    A) became the basis for American foreign policy in the post -World War II period.
  99. At the end of World War II, American policymakers generally envisioned a world

    A) dominated by the Soviet Union.
    B) in which American values would spread.
    C) in which the United States protected its trade position through high tariff barriers.
    D) from which the United States could isolate itself.
    B) in which American values would spread.
  100. During the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, in the Middle East the United States

    A) refused to recognize the state of Israel.
    B) moved to protect Western access to oil supplies.
    C) supported the British effort to prevent Egypt from taking control of the Suez Canal.
    D) successfully cooperated with the Soviets
    B) moved to protect Western access to oil supplies.
  101. Among those considered to be cultural rebels during the 1940s and 1950s in the United States was

    A) John Wayne.
    B) Elvis Presley.
    C) General Douglas MacArthur.
    D) Marilyn Monroe.
    B) Elvis Presley.
  102. Part of labor’s cooperation was gained by material concessions such as General Motors’ 1948 introduction of

    A) guaranteed annual wage.
    B) double time for overtime.
    C) profit sharing.
    D) cost-of-living adjustment.
    D) cost-of-living adjustment.
  103. During the 1950s, a group of authors who promoted unconventional values in their writings were known as

    A) the beat generation.
    B) conformists.
    C) hippies.
    D) litterateurs.
    A) the beat generation.
  104. As a result of defense spending in the 1950s, all of the following occurred EXCEPT

    A) half the federal budget went to the armed forces.
    B) most citizens protested the huge expenditures.
    C) business-government ties grew stronger.
    D) aircraft and electronic industries were stimulated.
    B) most citizens protested the huge expenditures.
  105. In response to the desegregation crisis resulting from the Supreme court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, President Eisenhower

    A) promoted the idea that laws were the best way to improve race relations.
    B) refused to send troops to integrate the high school in Little Rock, Arkansas.
    C) moved to quickly integrate the schools in Washington, D.C.
    D) privately endorsed the decision while condemning it publicly.
    C) moved to quickly integrate the schools in Washington, D.C.
  106. In the years since World War II,

    A) suburbs have become more important in American society.
    B) American housing has become less standardized.
    C) the rich have become more concentrated in the center of American cities.
    D) the American population has shifted away from the West and Southwest.
    A) suburbs have become more important in American society.
  107. The major influence on American societal norms that developed after World War II was

    A) movies.
    B) newspapers.
    C) radio.
    D) television.
    D) television.
  108. By 1960, a majority of all American families

    A) found they could not keep up with the cost of living.
    B) could attain a middle-class life style.
    C) had made few gains from the Depression years.
    D) had little extra spending money.
    B) could attain a middle-class life style.
  109. Which areas benefited the most from the military expenditures of the 1950s and 1960s?

    A) the Pacific Coast and the West
    B) Atlantic Coast and Alaska Territory
    C) New England and the Midwest
    D) the mid and Deep South
    A) the Pacific Coast and the West
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. For women in the United States, the 1950s was a period when

    A) they faced tremendous pressure to conform.
    B) they showed little resistance to returning to their traditional role in society.
    C) fewer married women worked.
    D) male attitudes significantly changed concerning their role in society.
    A) they faced tremendous pressure to conform.
  111. After learning of missiles in Cuba, Kennedy imposed

    A) economic sanctions.
    B) martial law.
    C) a quarantine.
    D) a blockade
    C) a quarantine.
  112. The Supreme Court in the 1960s

    A) restricted the civil liberties of certain groups through its decisions.
    B) affirmed a conservative philosophy through its judicial decisions.
    C) provided ineffective leadership.
    D) supported and promoted social changes.
    D) supported and promoted social changes.
  113. During the 1960s, the civil rights movement in the United States

    A) caused few problems for American political leaders.
    B) became less violent.
    C) was opposed by the NAACP.
    D) often employed civil disobedience, such as sit-ins, to achieve its goals.

    D) often employed civil disobedience, such as sit-ins, to achieve its goals.
  114. In his pursuit of black rights, Martin Luther King, Jr. was committed to

    A) nonviolent protest.
    B) forming a black political party.
    C) a separatist movement for blacks.
    D) violent confrontation.
    A) nonviolent protest.
  115. One of the chief obstacles John Kennedy had to overcome to win the election of 1960 was the fact that he was

    A) a poor television image.
    B) divorced.
    C) Quaker.
    D) Roman Catholic.
    D) Roman Catholic.
  116. During the Cuban missile crisis, the United States

    A) was determined to win a confrontation with the Soviets.
    B) decided to invade Cuba.
    C) officially recognized the Castro government.
    D) attempted to avoid a confrontation with the Soviets.
    A) was determined to win a confrontation with the Soviets.
  117. In his response to the war in Vietnam, President Lyndon Johnson

    A) always fully informed the American public about developments there.
    B) differed with Kennedy about the domino theory.
    C) was determined to prevent communism from spreading.
    D) endorsed the government of Ho Chi Minh.
    C) was determined to prevent communism from spreading.
  118. The student movement that emerged in the United States during the 1960s

    A) called for increased social reform.
    B) strongly supported the Vietnam War.
    C) consisted largely of conservative-oriented individuals.
    D) opposed the free-speech movement at the University of California.
    A) called for increased social reform.
  119. Underlying Johnsonʹs vision of a ʺGreat Societyʺ was

    A) the most extensive reform program in U.S. history.
    B) his opposition to Kennedyʹs legislative programs.
    C) the desire to be reelected in 1960.
    D) his belief that the Republicans would return to office in 1964.
    A) the most extensive reform program in U.S. history.
  120. A spokesman for the more militant blacks during the 1960s was

    A) Malcolm X.
    B) Booker T. Washington.
    C) Martin Luther King, Jr.
    D) Marcus Garvey.
    A) Malcolm X.
  121. The use of busing as a means for desegregation of American schools

    A) was strongly endorsed by President Nixon.
    B) often brought resistance in northern cities.
    C) eliminated de facto but not de jure segregation.
    D) was generally accepted by southern whites without protest.
    B) often brought resistance in northern cities.
  122. As result of activities by the American Indians during the 1970s

    A) non-Indian Americans became less sympathetic to Indian causes.
    B) Native American culture gained greater appreciation and respect.
    C) Indian leaders endorsed the United Statesʹ war effort in Vietnam.
    D) the Nixon administration encouraged self -determination among Indians.

    B) Native American culture gained greater appreciation and respect.
  123. In 1973, American Indian Movement took over the South Dakota village of

    A) Alcatraz.
    B) Taos.
    C) Round Valley.
    D) Wounded Knee.

    D) Wounded Knee.
  124. The person who led the union movement among Chicano farm workers during the 1960s was

    A) Henry B. Gonzales.
    B) Joseph Montoya.
    C) Cesar Chavez.
    D) Henry Cisneros.
    C) Cesar Chavez.
  125. As a result of the Nixon Doctrine, the United States’ policy concerning the Vietnam War

    A) brought increased involvement of American ground troops.
    B) led to an immediate decrease in American air attacks on North Vietnam.
    C) resulted in a refusal by the United States to negotiate an agreement with the North Vietnamese.
    D) led to the replacement of American troops with South Vietnamese troops.
    D) led to the replacement of American troops with South Vietnamese troops.
  126. A major element of Nixonʹs foreign policy was to

    A) concentrate American interests in the Western Hemisphere.

    B) use Congress to foster new diplomatic initiatives.
    C) foster new diplomatic relations with the communist countries.
    D) establish that communism was monolithic throughout the world.
    C) foster new diplomatic relations with the communist countries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. The founders of the National Organization of Women contended that

    A) women generally approved of traditional marriage relationships.
    B) women were not treated as equal members of society.
    C) the Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave women equal opportunities.
    D) consciousness-raising was unimportant.
    B) women were not treated as equal members of society.
  128. As the events of Watergate unraveled,

    A) the role of the president in the scandal became evident.

    B) little evidence could be found of the presidentʹs involvement.
    C) Americans grew tired of the issue.
    D) the judicial system did not participate in the process.
    A) the role of the president in the scandal became evident.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. President Carter upset liberals by

    A) all of the above.
    B) reducing spending.
    C) beginning deregulation.
    D) failing to construct an effective energy policy.
    A) all of the above.
  130. In the 1970s, the most critical factor that disrupted the American economy was

    A) spiraling food prices.
    B) the oil embargo.
    C) wage and price controls.
    D) the war in Vietnam.
    B) the oil embargo.
  131. Under President Reagan, the budget for military expenditures

    A) made tax reduction impossible.
    B) increased immensely while spending for social programs decreased.
    C) had to be reduced because of tax cuts.
    D) remained at the 1979 level.
    B) increased immensely while spending for social programs decreased.
  132. The tax cuts of the 1980s

    A) favored the middle class more than the rich.
    B) benefited the wealthy far more than middle- or lower-income Americans.
    C) were accompanied by increased regulation of the insurance industry.
    D) helped many poor families join the middle class.
    B) benefited the wealthy far more than middle- or lower-income Americans.
  133. One effect of the Persian Gulf War was that it

    A) caused serious shortages in the United States.
    B) increased the popularity of President Bush.
    C) completely destroyed the power base of Saddam Hussein.
    D) brought Israel and the Palestinians together against a common enemy.
    B) increased the popularity of President Bush.
  134. The conservative coalition of the 1980s sought to

    A) reform the election process.
    B) scale back the welfare state.
    C) expand the interstate highway system.
    D) increase regulation of the banking industry.
    B) scale back the welfare state.
  135. During the 1980s the gap between the wealthiest and poorest segments of American society

    A) narrowed because of tax policies.
    B) reflected the different natural abilities of individuals.
    C) increased greatly.
    D) was a matter of great concern to the administration.
    C) increased greatly.
  136. According to supply-side economic theory

    A) conservation of natural resources is the key to long -term economic health.
    B) the national debt should be continued indefinitely.
    C) reduction of taxes will encourage business expansion, which will ultimately stimulate the whole economic system.
    D) the nationʹs most important resource is its people.
    C) reduction of taxes will encourage business expansion, which will ultimately stimulate the whole economic system.
  137. According to the authors, the most momentous development in modern world history was

    A) the START agreement for missile reduction.
    B) the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
    C) the Strategic Defense Initiative, known as ʺStar Wars.ʺ
    D) the United Nations operation in the Persian Gulf War.
    B) the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
  138. The United States slipped from its position as the worldʹs industrial leader mainly because of

    A) failure to invest sufficiently in its productive capacity.
    B) overconcentration on electronic industries.
    C) shrinking markets abroad.
    D) failure to train workers adequately.
    A) failure to invest sufficiently in its productive capacity.
  139. Which of the following Asian nations sent immigrants to the United States in the late twentieth century?

    A) China
    B) Korea
    C) India
    D) All of the above.
    D) All of the above.
  140. By 1992, the ethnic make -up of the American population indicated that

    A) increased immigration and high birth rates for minorities combined to create a large non-white population.
    B) the immigration policies of the United States discriminated against Asians.
    C) the United Statesʹ involvement in Vietnam had not affected immigration patterns into the country.
    D) the movement of Mexicans to the United States had essentially ceased.
    A) increased immigration and high birth rates for minorities combined to create a large non-white population.

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