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- phylo- species
- natural selection, unconditioned response to a specific unonditioned stimulus ( not learned but a product of evolution
- learning, a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience ex. habituation, respondent, operant.
"nurture vs. nature"
being born with a modifiable brain and having a long childhood are products of evolution
long childhod allows children to learn about their specific environment and take advantage of brain that is modifible
growth has to do with learning new things, shape and develop personality
- (getting used to)
- gradual failure of a stimulus to elicit a response it once did as a result of repeated presentation of that stimulus.
habituation is present
in the fetus. and improves during the first year of life
UCS -----> UCR
habituation is adaptive: greater responsiveness to novel aspects of environment.
(the new sound)
elicitation of the response to a differnet stimulus (shows a result is due to familarity and not to fatigue)
the thing that you got used to the first time changes, ex. you get used to a whistle, and if it is a repeated whistle then you get used to it eventually, but it can change if you were to do a loud clap and you would react differently to the new sound.
habituation used in early studies of development
- habituation demonstrates that the child reconizes the stimulus and can be used to study:
- - show a 9 month old faces of men until they habituated then show womans face and dishabituation occurs.
- :duration of habituation, a 2nd habituation 24hrs after the 1st is more rapid.
- habituation is an early index of learning capability and environmental responsiveness.
- -at 7 months is positvely correlated wth IQ
- -at 6-8 months is positively correlated with understanding and use of language during second year of life
- -differs from pre-term and full-term infants
- -differentiates between depressed and non-depressed mothers
- the process by whihc a neutral stimulus acquires the eliciting properties of an unconditioned stimulus as a result of being paired with the unconditioned stimulus. extends the functioning of phylogenic (unconditioned) responses to a wider range of stimuli
- ex. skull and a cross bones. you know it means that it is deadly because of the icon shown.- your ability to respond to this stimuli.
-respondent learning example of dog+fork+food.
-32-39 week-old fetuses
- 1. you show a dog food the response for a dog is salvation
- 2. you show a dog a fork, theres not stimuli so the fork can be used as a neutral stimulus.3. the food is a unconditioned stimulus, because when the dog sees the food he knows hes going to get fed and startes to salvate.
- 4. if you repeatedly show the dog a fork then food, fork then food, etc, you will get a conditioned stimulus because the dog has learned when he sees a fork he is going to eat. then the fork becomes a conditioned stimulus because when it sees it, it knows its going to eat.
*pairing to establish NS as CS
- NS + UCS = UCR
- fork + food = salvation
- respondent conditioning in a 32-39 week old fetuses
- vibration = movement of the fetus
- NS + UCS = UCR
- tone + vibration = movement of the fetus
respondent generalization- presenting it over witll keep stimulating.
respondent extinction- showing the fork over again without food it will eventually not produce a response.
individual differences in resondent conditioning in 5 month-old full-term and pre-term infants
- NS + UCS = UCR
- tone + airpuff= blink
full-term 5 month old both demonstrated respondent learning after pairings of the NS and UCS
* the majority of full-term
infants but only half the preterm infants
exhibited the expected rapid acquisition and gradual extinction of conditional responding
psychoneuroimmuology- modifing the human immune system with respondent conditioning
- epinephrine (UCS) = NK cell activity (UCR)
- sherbert (NS) + epinephrine (UCS) = NK cell actvity
- sherbert (CS) = NK cell activity (CR)