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Purpose of Audience Research?
- 1. Sell time to advertisers
- 2. Evaluate programs, talent, competition
Major Radio Research Company
(TV research company)
physical characteristics (age, sex, race, income, education)
psychological characteristics (values, beliefs, lifestyles)
percentage of total potential listeners tuned to a station
percentage of actual listeners tuned to a station
Term: Metro Survey Area
urban center (highest population concentration)
Term: Total Survey Area
Term: Area of Dominant Influence (how many?)
primary media markets (290 radio ADI's)
- #1 - NYC
- #2 - LA
- #3 - Chicago
- (#84 - Little Rock)
Term: Cost Per Point (CPP)
cost of each rating point (1% of population)
Term: Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
cost to reach 1,000 listeners
Average Quarter Hour
Radio Research Methodologies: Diaries
what is it?
- Participants maintain week-long diary of listening (time, station, location).
- Provides demographic data (age, sex, race, employment, residence)
- 1. Inaccuracies regarding recall and recording.
- 2. Less than 50% of sample accepts diaries
- 3. Less than 50% of returned diaries are usable
- 4. Low cooperation rate among young males and minorities.
Radio Research Methodologies: Portable People Meter
what is it?
- Device worn like a pager, detects inaudible tones in broadcast audio signal.
- Passive system
- Provides overnight ratings
- 1. Cannot determine if person is actually listening
- 2. Most people refuse meters
- 3. Many people forget to wear meters
- 4. Bias against elderly, poor, minorities
Radio Research Methodologies: Telephone recall/coincidentals
what is it?
- Respondents are called and asked what they are or have been listening to.
- Fast data collection.
- Relatively accurate recall.
- 1. privacy intrusion
- 2. limited to respondents with phones who answer
Radio Research Methodologies: Auditorium Music Testing
Respondents (100-150) gather in auditorium and rate music hooks (5-10 second song excerpts)
Radio Research Methodologies: Call-Out Music Testing
Respondents are called and asked to rate music hooks (5-10 second song excerpts)
Radio Research Methodologies: Focus Groups
- Small group of 8-12 respondents meet in a conference room to discuss stations, music, personalities, etc.
- Provides qualitative data
What are (4) impacts of ratings?
- 1. multiple interpretations of "number one"
- 2. more commercials on higher rated stations
- 3. homogenization of content -- imitation of success
- 4. programming/personnel changes
Radio Call Letter examples:
WEAF (water, earth, air, fire); WGN (world's greatest newspaper); WFAN, WLS (world's largest store - sears); WNUS, WNWS, KVHU
How was radio promoted (especially in the 1920-1930s)?
newspaper program schedules; remotes from hotels, theatres, stores; unique call letters
Todd Storz and Gordon McLendon did what for radio promotion?
Top 40 station promotion with jingles, contests, and stunts
Radio Promotion: On-Air Promotion
(call letters, frequency, brand, slogans)
- Call Letters & frequency -- KVHU 95.3
- Brand -- KISS, Magic, The Zoo, Q-100, KOOL
- Slogans -- "classic rock", "young country", "classic hits"
- Repeat often -- every time announcer talks
- frequency usually preferred over call letters
- bookend -- before and after all breaks
- info grafts -- "92.9 Time" "102.5 weather"
KISS-FM Brand (info)
Brand name of a Top 40 music format heard on FM stations in the United States and overseas.
Clear Channel Communications claims ownership of the KISS-FM brand and operates most KISS-FM formatted stations.
Ironically, the company, based in San Antonio, DOES NOT own the KISS-FM in San Antonio.
Radio Promotion: On-Air
Contests -- easy to understand; entertainment value; prizes that connect with listener; enhance/reinforce station sound, format, image, and brand
Promotion -- personalities; format; programs; website; special features; events; community service
Radio Promotion: Off-Air
(can be either Cash or Trade)
- Billboards -- eye-catching, simple
- Bus/Taxi cars ... benches/transit shelters
- Newspapers -- common promotion medium
- Television -- expensive, effective
- Bumper Stickers
- Miscellaneous -- posters, t-shirts, calendars, key chains, coffee mugs, playlists, book covers, pens
- Discount cards -- discounts, prizes
- Event Sponsorship -- fairs, sporting events, concerts, music festivals
- Personal Appearances -- malls, beaches, advertisers, concerts
- Direct Marketing -- mail, telephone, e-mail, web
FCC regulation regarding contests (just read)
A contest is defined as a scheme in which a prize is offered or awarded, based upon chance, diligence, knowledge or skills, to members of the public
The FCC requires that a licensee that broadcasts or advertises information about a contest that it conducts shall fully and accurately disclose the material terms of the contest, and shall conduct the contest substantially as announced or advertised. No contest description shall be false, misleading, or deceptive with respect to any material term.
- ``Material terms'' include those factors
- which define the operation of the contest and which affect participation therein. Although the material terms may vary widely depending upon the exact
- nature of the contest, they will generally include: (1) how to enter or participate; (2) eligibility restrictions; (3) entry deadline dates; (4) whether prizes can be won; (5) when prizes can be won; (6) the extent, nature, and value of the prizes; (7) the basis for valuation of prizes; (8) time and means of selection of winners; and/or (9) tie-breaking procedures.
General Contest guidelines (7)
- 1. serve the "public interest, necessity, convenience"
- 2. avoid placing participants or property in danger
- 3. disclose the details of the contest
- 4. do not mislead concerning prizes
- 5. do not rig a contest or determine winners in advance
- 6. signed prize receipts and release can prevent problems
- 7. stations must file form 1099-MISC with the IRS for prizes valued at more than $600
FCC Regulations Regarding Lotteries:
Broadcasters may not broadcast advertisements or information concerning lotteries.
Elements of a lottery (3)
Exceptions to having lotteries (4)
- 1. prize -- anything of value
- 2. chance -- all participants have equal chance of winning, no skill required
- 3. consideration -- participants provide something of value (money, time)
- 1. lottery conducted by the state
- 2. fishing contests not conducted for profit
- 3. gaming conducted by an Indian tribe pursuant to Indian Gaming regulations
- 4. lottery or giveaway not prohibited by state law for: a non profit or governmental organization that qualifies as a 501 tax exempt organization; a commercial organization as a promotional activity and is clearly occasional and ancillary to the primary purpose of the organization
First Radio Commercial
- August 28, 1922
- WEAF, New York.
- Long Island real estate firm - Queensboro Corporation
- Selling Hawthorne Court - living in the suburbs
- 10 minute
Radio Advertising History (by decades from 1920-1950)
1920s -- commercialization of radio; advantage: growth and prosperity; disadvantage: decrease in public service
1930s -- program sponsorships; programs supplied by ad agencies; indirect advertising eventually led to direct advertising; Great Depression - advertising revenues soar
1940s -- advertising revenue continues to climb; World War II
1950s -- television shifts national advertising away from radio; radio focuses on local sales
What is the essential source of station revenue?
Is radio advertising tangible or intangible?
Radio Advertising is an Intangible Product
What is radio advertising's prime competitor?
What are 4 nontraditional revenue streams in radio advertising?
website, HD side-channels, podcasts, special events
Radio Account Executive:
- Motivation: Money!
- Turnover: High. 70% out within 3 years; 73% of new AEs out within 1 year
- Characteristics: people-oriented; college-educated; knowledge of media, marketing, research, finance; ambitious; confident; energetic; determined; honest; intelligent; creative; organized; well-groomed; thick-skinned
- Commission: typically 15%. often highest paid radio personnel (5- and 6- figure salaries)
- Job tools: account list, daily call sheet/report
Radio Sales Department
department head: general sales manager
department size: small (2-4), medium (4-6), large (8-10)
Radio Sales Tools, Variables, levels of sales, and objectives
Rate Card -- grid structure, inventory sensitive
rate variables -- daypart (morning drive, afternoon drive, mid-day, evening, overnight), spot length (30, 60, 10, 15 sec), quantity (number of spots), duration (week, flights (weeks/events), month, 26 weeks, 52 weeks), schedule (fixed, ROS/BTA)
- Levels of sales
- National -- rep company sales; national advertisers
- Local -- advertising agency sales; local/regional
- Retail -- direct sale to advertisers; local/regional
Objectives: Frequency (impressions), consistency
Radio Advertising Bureau
Sales Term: Arbitron
medium and large market surveys
Sales Term: cold call
going into a business without setting up a meeting with them before hand
Sales Term: Spec Spot
- a speculative spot. what an advertisement for that company COULD be.
- Avoid humor in spec spots
Sales Term: "Buy by the book"
- you sale your radio station based on your ratings in the book. "Those who buy by the book, die by the book"
- If your ratings go down, then your sales go down
Sales Term: Affidavit
A statement sent to a company/organization telling them when/how often you ran their advertisement.
Sales Term: Features
examples: news, weather, sports, business, traffic
Sales Term: Co-Op advertising
- when two companies split payment for an advertisement because the ad would promote both.
- (i.e. serta mattresses working with bobby's mattress store)
Sales Term: Trade-outs
- you give an advertising spot in exchange for something else.
- (i.e. our deal with searcy living magazine. an ad for an ad)
Radio News History: 1912
Titanic disaster; wider acceptance of wireless telegraphy (radio act of 1912)
Radio News History: 1914-1918
World War I; wireless telegraphy used exclusively for war effort (completely government/war controlled)
Radio News History: 1920
- Harding-Cox election results (WWJ Detroit; KDKA Pittsburgh)
- (I think this was the first live broadcast)
Radio News History: 1920's
NBC and CBS news and information programming
Radio News History: 1932
Press-radio news wars; newspaper/wire service blackout; ends in 1934 (AP, UP, INS)
(newspapers werent sharing their news information with the radio so the radio formed their own news collecting department: walter cronkite)
Radio News History: 1930's
Great Depression; Franklin Roosevelt Fireside Chats
Radio News History: 1940's
World War II; radio served as primary global news source; network news dominates; rise of broadcast journalism; Edward R. Murrow (CBS)
Radio News History: 1950's
Television; radio news becomes localized
Radio News History: 1980s
Deregulation eliminates news requirement and reduces local news content/staff
Characteristics of Radio News
- Fewer local radio newscasts and news personnel
- Radio is the primary and first source of breaking news
- Written for the ear
- Clear, concise, conversational, current, correct, candid
- Five Ws and H
- News, sports, traffic, weather
- Legal, ethical
- Developed by Gordon McLendon in mid 1960's
- 2nd most popular radio format -- 1,500 News/Talk stations; 9,000 (of 13,000) provide some news
- Most expensive radio format -- large staff
- Markets -- large market
- Stations -- mostly AM
- Audience -- 60% men 18+; 40% women 18+
- Radio is the primary and first source of breaking news
- Most americans get their first news of the day from radio; 16% of adults rely on newspapers for first news of the day
Radio News Department
- Program director supervises all program content
- News director supervises news department -- policies, staff, budget
- News Staff -- reporters, anchors, writers, producers
News Term: Rip 'n' Read
where you read your news information straight from another source. No re-writting
News Term: RTDNA
Radio and Television News Directors Association
(or Radio and Television Digital News Association)
News Term: SPJ
Society of Professional Journalists
News Term: Wire Services
AP (Associated Press), UPI (United Press International)
This format is associated with the most stations in the United States?
This format is typically the most expensive to produce?
One of the first FM radio formats?
One of the first radio formats (overall)
This format attracts the broadest age group (young and old)
This format is associated with the fewest stations?
Air America is most often associated with this format?
This format has the largest share of the listening audience in the United States
This format is most common on AM stations?
This format originated as Top-40
CHR -- contemporary hit radio
Government Approach to Radio Formats
Top 3 Radio formats as of 2008
- Adult Contemporary
Country: popularity, target, music
- Popularity: number 1 most popular; most stations
- Target: 25-54; broad audience appeal; blue collar appeal but increasingly upscale
- Music: relatively unfragmented; wide-ranging artists from classic to contemporary.
News/Talk/Sports: Popularity, target, characteristics, king of talk radio, issues
- (Gordon McLendon, 1960's, Tijuana XETRA)
- Popularity: 2nd most popular format
- Target: working class; older audience; mostly male
- Characteristics: very expensive; large staff; confined to large markets; mostly AM; conservative talk dominates; liberal talk has had limited success (air america)
- King of Conservative Talk Radio: Rush Limbaugh
- Issues: Fairness Doctrine
Adult Contemporary (AC): popularity, target, music
- Popularity: Number 3 most popular (as of 2008)
- Target: 25-49; high female appeal
- Music: current and re-current (1970s - today); soft rock; limited jock talk; long music sweeps (10-12 min)
Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR)
Originally Top 40
popularity, target, music
- Popularity: number 4 most popular
- Target: 12-18; teens-young adults
- Music: top selling; narrow playlist (top 40); personality announcers; little if any news content; promotion/contest oriented
Soft Adult/ Easy Listening/ Smooth Jazz
Originally Beautiful Music
- Target: older audience (45+); loyal listeners
- Music: wall-to-wall music; minimal talk; soft vocals and instrumentals
Album Oriented/ Progressive Rock
target, music, challenges
- Target: 18-34; mostly males
- Music: Classic rock (late 1960-1980s); active rock (unfamiliar mixed with familiar); little if any news
- Challenges: "hip" but not exclusive; "edgy" but not offensive; "smart" but not condescending; "young" but not immature
Classic/ Oldies/ Nostalgia
Originally Big Band
- Target: older audience
- Content: 1940s-1950s / 1950s-1960s; limited announcer talk
"Melting Pot" format
- Target: hispanics and black; metropolitan areas
- Content: upbeat, danceable sound, hip, energetic, friendly announcers
Classical: popularity, target, characteristics
- Popularity: few stations; limited listeners
- Target: mature, upscale, educated, loyal
- Characteristics: one of the first FM formats; popular public radio format; few commercial stations; low-key announcers; little if any on-air promotion/contests
Religious/ Christian: characteristics, challenges
- Characteristics: one of the first radio formats; block formatting common; common AM format; common non-commercial FM format
- Challenges: difficult to serve wide-ranging beliefs; easy to offend/alienate
black/african american -- largest minority group in america; format originates in memphis in 1947
hispanic -- format originates in san antonio in 1947
other -- portuguese, german, polish, greek, japanese, american indians, eskimos, etc.
Full Service radio format
Format: multiple genres; variety; diversity; general appeal
Target: middle-age; small market
Public Radio format
- block programming
- news and information
- classical and jazz formats
- news -- NPR's "morning edition" and "all things considered"
"Theatre of the Mind"
- "War of the World" -- Orson Welles
- Popular during 1930s and 1940s
Radio Programmers (characteristics)
- often on-air talent
- research specialist
- brand manager
- supervises announcers, production
- monitor competition
Clocks -- music, news, commercials, promos, weather
- Quarter Hour listenership rankings
- 1 -- first quarter
- 2 -- third quarter
- 3 -- second quarter
- 4 -- fourth quarter
- commercial loads (more during popular listening hour)
- drive time -- morning (6-10), afternoon (4-7)
Radio Music Royalty companies (3)
BMI, ASCAP, SESAC
when an announcer gets paid (under the table) to run a certain advertisement at a certain time.
Emergency Alert System
Electromagnetic Energy Characteristics
- invisible radiant waveform energy
- constant velocity -- 186,000 miles per second
- varying frequencies and wave lengths: frequencies measured in hearts - cycles per second, wave lengths measured in meters
- various types of energy: radio, light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma, cosmic
Electromagnetic Spectrum (rating from shortest to longest wave length)
gamma rays, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwave, radio
What is the formula for computing wavelength?
velocity divided by frequency
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Carrier Wave
radio frequency to which station is assigned
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Modulation
encoding audio/video onto carrier wave
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Frequency
number of cycles per second
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Amplitude
height of wave
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Propagation
radiation of wave
Factors that influence propagation (the radiation of wave) (4)
attenuation, refraction, reflection, interference
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Attenuation
decrease in amplitude over time and distance
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Refraction
bending of wave
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Reflection
reflection of wave
Electromagnetic Energy Term: Interference
distortion from manmade or natural source
AM & FM radio characteristics (modulation, velocity, frequency ranges)
Modulation: AM = amplitude modulation, FM = frequency modulation
Velocity: 186,000 miles per second
Frequency Ranges: AM = 535-1705 kHz, FM = 88-108 MHz
AM & FM radio characteristics (channel assignments, channel width, power ranges)
Channel Assignments: AM = 540-1700 (10kHz intervals), FM = 88.1-107.9 (200kHz, .2MHz intervals)
Channel Width: AM = 10 kHz, FM = 200 kHz / .2 MHz (20 times wider than AM channel)
Power Ranges: AM = 250-50,000 watts, FM = 100-100,000 watts
AM radio method of transmission
- AM: Tower
- two parts: above ground (antenna) and below ground (radials)
- height and mass: determined by frequency of station
- lower frequency stations require taller towers (larger waves)
FM radio method of transmission
- FM: Bay
- bay is directional (high FM frequencies are directional)
- height: determined by wattage of station
- multiple arrays
AM radio types of radio waves
Ground wave: travels along and through ground. refracted by curvature of the earth. attenuates rapidly. provides primary coverage area (50-80 miles)
Sky wave: travels through atmosphere. influenced by ionosphere (30-300 miles above earth). provides secondary coverage are (hundreds/thousands of miles)
FM radio types of radio waves
Direct wave: travels line of sight (frequencies above 30 MHz). coverage area determined by height of bay and power of station. maximum coverage area 50-70 miles
How does Power influence radio propogation (radiation of wave)?
as wattage increases, the efficiency of the wattage decreases (inverse square law)
How does Frequency influence radio propogation (radiation of wave)?
as frequency increases, the efficiency of the wattage decreases
- 5,000 watt station at 540 kHz = 60 mile coverage
- 50,000 watt station at 1600 kHz = 60 mile coverage
- 100,000 watt station at 88.1 MHz = 60 mile coverage
How does soil and atmosphere influence radio propogation of AM waves (radiation of wave)?
- moist soil propagates better than dry soil
- minerals are excellent conductors (salt water 5,000x more conductive)
- ionosphere affects sky wave
How do antenna characteristics influence radio propogation (wave radiation)?
- height: determined by frequency (AM) or power (FM)
- phasing: multiple arrays (AM) cancel and reinforce signal
- polarization: horizontal, vertical, circular
Factors influencing audio quality: frequency response
Frequency response: ability of technology to reproduce frequency range
- AM: 500-5,000 Hz
- FM: 100-15,000 Hz
- Voice: 100-10,000 Hz
- Hearing: 50-20,000 Hz
Factors influencing audio quality: multiplexing
Multiplexing: encoding channel subcarriers for stereo and other services
Factors Influencing audio quality: Interference
- Interference: distortion or interference of signal
- static occurs at the peaks of the wave
- same channel
- adjacent channel
Factors influencing audio quality: signal to noise ratio
- Signal to noise ratio: comparison of signal to noise
- AM: 20:1 -- signal must be 20 times stronger than noise
- FM: 2:1 -- signal must be 2 times stronger than noise
Factors influencing audio quality: separation of stations
- geographic separation
- channel separation
AM station classes
Class A = unlimited time station (24 hr) that operates on a clear channel
Class D = operates either daytime, limited time, or unlimited time with nighttime power less than .25 kW
FM station classes
Class A = 6 kW / 100 meters (tower height)
Class C = 100 kW / 600 meters (tower height)
Satellite Radio History
1992 -- FCC allocates "S"-band (2.3 GHZ) spectrum for DARS (Digital Audio Radio Service)
1997 -- two companies receive licenses for DARS in US; each pay $80 million for spectrum use
2001 -- three space-based broadcasters in various stages of development
- 2005 -- Sirius reports 3.3 million subscribers and lost $863 million.
- XM reports 5.9 million subscribers and lost $675 million
2008 -- Sirius and XM complete controversial merger forming Sirius XM Radio (July 29, 2008). Approximately 18 million subscribers (more than 19 million subscribers in 2010)
Key system components in satellite radio (4)
Ground stations: transmit signal to satellite
Satellites: transmit wide-area footprint to receivers and ground repeaters
Ground Repeaters: supplement the satellite signal in urban areas (building block satellite signal)
Radio Receivers: receive and unscramble digital signal; requires a cell-phone-sized external antenna; adapters available to convert satellite signal to conventional radio signal transmitted through unused FM channels
Advantages to Satellite radio (5)
- 1. wide-area coverage (regional and national)
- 2. Digital audio quality
- 3. Noncommercial and limited-commercial channels
- 4. Hundreds of channels of music, entertainment, news, information
- 5. receivers display song title, artist, channel format
Disadvantages to Satellite radio (6)
- 1. No local stations
- 2. Subscription service
- 3. Non compatible systems (between Sirius and XM)
- 4. Requires external antenna
- 5. Poor reception in urban (buildings) and wooded (tress) areas
- 6. Poor sound quality because of very low bit rates (less than 100 kbps, as low as 34 kbps) (lower the bit rate, the more they can fit in their "frequencies")
XM radio characteristics
uses two satellites places in parallel Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) about 22,000 miles above the earth (common orbit for most communication satellites)
the first two XM satellites, named ROCK (3-18-01) and ROLL (5-8-01), serve as in-orbit spares -- replaced by RHYTHM (early 05) and BLUES (early 07). Rhythm and Blues together cost about $500-million, including launch fees and insurance. Each satellite has a life of approximately 15 years.
provides home and automobile services
in 2006 signed a 3 year, $55-million deal with Oprah Winfrey
Sirius Radio characteristics
use three non-GEO satellites (nov 30, 2000). Each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the US, with at least one satellite overhead at all times. Fourth satellite on the ground ready for launch as back up.
focuses mostly on the automobile radio market
in 2006, added Howard Stern in a 5 year, $500 million deal (also covers staff salaries and production costs)
WorldSpace Radio characteristics
Broadcasting to most of Asia and Europe and all of Africa; also licensed to serve South America and Central America but has not launched service to these areas.
Uses two geostationary satellites -- AfriStar (Oct 1998) and Asia Star (March 2000) -- transmitting on the L-band spectrum (1467-1492 MHz). Each satellite can transmit 50 channels
WorldSpace will not transmit to the United States, but has partnered with XM to share technological developments and channels ("the system" and "u-pop").
focusing on world domination of the satellite radio market, especially areas of world not reached by conventional radio. potential audience: 4.6 billion listeners spanning five continents
subscription rates determined by local distributors offering multiple service options, ranging from low-cost basic service to high-end specialty service
Terrestrial DAB: IBOC DAB
- IBOC DAB
- In-Band, On-Channel
- Digital Audio Broadcasting