MA 203 A & P

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Shutrbug20
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84875
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MA 203 A & P
Updated:
2011-05-09 21:42:37
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Respiratory System
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Chapter 11 Unit 7
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  1. Function of Respiratory
    • Bring O2 from air to blood for delivery to cells
    • Expel waste (CO2 and some H2O) returned to lungs from blood
    • Produce airflow through larynx to make speach possible
  2. Upper Respiratory Track
    • Nose
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
  3. Lower Respiratory Track
    • Bronchial Tree
    • Lungs
    • Protected by Thorasic Cavity (Ribs)
  4. Nose
    Air enters and passes through nasal cavity
  5. Cilia
    • Inside nose (hair)
    • Filters out debris
  6. Mucous Membranes
    • Specialized tissue,
    • Lines Resp. System
  7. Musous Membranes
    Mucus
    • Secretion by membrane
    • Protects and lubricates
    • Moistens, warms, filters air as it enters
  8. Olfactory Receptors
    • Nerve endings allow to smell
    • Important for taste
  9. Tonsils
    Form protective circle of lymphatic tissue around entrance to Resp. System
  10. Paranasal Cavity
    • Para = near, nas = nose, al = pertaining to
    • Function = make skull lighter, helps produce sound by resonating voice
  11. Paranasal Cavity
    Four Total
    • Frontal Sinus
    • Sphenoid Sinus
    • Maxillary Sinus
    • Ethmoid Sinus
  12. Pharynx (Throat)
    Receives air after nose
  13. Pharynx (Throat)
    Sections (3)
    • Nasopharynx = posterior to nasal cavity, only used for transport of air from nose. (1st division)
    • Oropharynx = vissible when looking into mouth, shared by resp. and digestive system. (2nd division)
    • Laryngopharynx = share air, food, liquids; continue to openings of esophagus and trachea (3rd division)
  14. Larynx (Voice Box)
    • Triangle shaped chamber between pharynx and trachea
    • Protected by 9 cartilage rings
    • Largest cartilage = Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's Apple)
    • Contains vocal cords
    • Length determines pitch of voice
  15. Larynx (Voice Box)
    Vocal Cords
    • During breathing - cords separate to let air pass
    • During speach - cords close and vibrate by air to make sound
  16. Protective Swallowing
    • Soft palate moves up to block food and liquid from entering nose through Nasopharynx (involuntary)
    • Epiglottis swings down to close Laryngopharynx to keep food and liquid out of Trachea
  17. Trachea (Windpipe)
    • Directly in front of esophagus
    • Role = transport air to/from lungs
    • Hold open by series of "C"-shaped cartilage rings (16-20), prevent collapse
    • 4 1/2" long
  18. Bronchi
    • At Trachea -
    • Divides into 2 branches (primary branchi)
    • 1 for each lung
    • Refered to as Branchi Tree
    • Continue to branch in lungs smaller and smaller into Bronchioles
  19. Alveoli
    • Known as air sacks
    • Grape like structures
    • End of each Bronchiole branch
    • Capillaries surround Alveoli on thin wall surface
    • Gas exchange occurs here (External Respiration)
  20. Lungs
    • Organs of respiration
    • Divided into Lobes
    • Right = 3 Lobes
    • Left = 2 Lobes with Cardiac Notch for Heart
    • Surfactant = produced by lungs to reduce surface tension and allow air to absorb more easily (holds alveoli open)
  21. Mediastinum
    • Cavity between lungs
    • Contains connective tissue and organs
    • Heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, and lymph nodes
  22. Pleura
    • Thin, moist, slippery membrane covering outer lungs and lines inner surface of thorasic cavity
    • Parietal Pleura - (outer layer) lines thorasic cavity and forms sac contaning each lung
    • Visceral Pleura - (inner layer) surrounds each lung
    • Pleural Cavity/Space - airtight space between layers, contains thin layer of fluid to allow to slide during breathing
  23. Diaphram
    • Muscle that separates thorasic and abdomen cavities
    • Makes breathing possible by negative pressure
    • Phrenic Nerve controls diaphram
  24. Respiration
    • Exchange of O2 & CO2 essential to life
    • Inhalation - act of taking in air (diaphram moves downward / flattens)
    • Exhalation - act of breathing out (diaphram relaxes / domes)
  25. External Respiration
    Bringing air into / out of lungs and exchange gases
  26. Internal Respiration
    Cellular breathing
  27. Otolaryngologist (ENT)
    • Specialized phasician
    • Ears, nose, throat
  28. Pulmonologist
    • Specialist
    • Lungs and associated tissues
  29. COPD
    • Difficult breathing
    • Damage to branchi
    • Difficult air in/out
    • Smokers
  30. Chronic Bronchitis
    • Airway inflammed / thickened
    • Increased mucus producing cells
  31. Emphysema
    • Progressive loss of lung function
    • Decrease in number of alveoli
    • Enlargement of remaining alveoli
    • Progressive distruction of walls of remaining alveoli
    • Enlarged barrel chest
  32. Asthma
    • Chronic allergic disorder
    • Wheezing by partially obstructed airway
    • Controller meds = corticosteroids (daily prevention)
    • Quick relief / Resue meds - bronchodilator (1st sign attack)
  33. Upper Respiratory Infection
    Acute Nasopharyngitis = common cold
  34. Allergic Rhinitis
    • Alergy
    • Reaction to airborne allergens
  35. Croup
    • Acute respiratory syndrome in kids
    • Obstruction of larynx, hoarse, bark cough
  36. Diphtheria
    • Bacteria infection throat and upper respiratory
    • Toxins can damage heart
  37. Epistaxis
    Nose Bleed
  38. Peertussis
    Whooping Cough
  39. Rhinorrhea
    Runny nose
  40. Sinusitis
    Inflammation of sinus
  41. Pharyngitis
    Soar throat
  42. Laryngoplegia
    Paralysis of larynx
  43. Aphonia
    A = without, phon = voice/sound, ia = abnormal condition
  44. Pneumothorax
    • Accumulation of air in the pleural space
    • Prevents lung from expanding
    • (Collapsed Lung)
  45. Pleural Effusion
    • Fluid in pleural space
    • Prevents lung from expanding
    • (Collapsed Lung)
  46. Mycoplasma Pneumonia
    Walking Pneumonia
  47. Anthracosis
    Coal miners / Black lung disease
  48. Byssinosis
    Brown lung disease (cotton dust)
  49. Hypercapnia
    Buildup of CO2
  50. Hypoxemia
    Low O2 in blood
  51. Hypoxia
    Low O2 in body tissue / cells
  52. Bronchoscopy
    • Visual exam of bronchi with scope
    • Can be used to repair tissue
    • Can remove foreign objects
  53. Peak Flow Meter
    • Asthma test
    • How fast expel air
  54. Polysomnography
    Sleep Apnea Study
  55. Antitussive
    Cough meds
  56. Nebulizer
    Atomizer
  57. Thoracentesis
    • Surgical procedure of chest
    • Needle inserted into chest to drain fluid from lung
  58. Thoracotomy
    Remove lung damaged by cancer
  59. Ambient Air
    • 21% O2
    • Exhaled air = 16% O2
  60. Terminology
    • Dys = bad, phon = voice, ia = abnormal condition
    • Atel = incomplete, ectasis = stretching (collapse lung)
    • Pneum/o = lung, rrhagia = bleeding
    • Pneum/o = lung, coni = dust, osis = abnormal condition
    • Spir/o = breath, meter = measure
  61. Pleurisy / Pleuritis
    • Inflammation of pleura
    • Sharp chest pain with breathing
  62. Pleurodynia
    Painful breathing
  63. Changes to Normal Breathing
    • Coughing - forceful exhalation
    • Hiccoughs - spasm of diaphram
    • Sneezing
    • Yawning
    • Crying / Laughing
  64. Bronchitis
    Yellow / Green sputum
  65. Pneumoconiosis
    • Lung disease
    • Years exposure to environment (asbestos)
  66. Pneumonia
    • Most common death in weakened patients
    • Nosocomial infection in hospital

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