intro zoonoses

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intro zoonoses
2011-05-09 21:52:35
animal science

intro animal mgmt
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  1. Carriers of disease
    • Ticks
    • Lice
    • Fleas
    • Mosquitoes
    • Flies
  2. Vectors
    • Carriers
    • Doesn't have to be an animal; is anything that can carry dzs, including cleaning equipment
  3. Pox viruses
    • Acute viral dzs (start to see symptoms & signs in less than 24 hours)
    • Affects many animals, including man and birds, but not dogs
  4. Proliferative
    Everywhere on the body and mucous membranes
  5. Cutaneous
    Bound to the skin
  6. Self-limiting lesions
    Don't need to treat them; they go away naturally
  7. Ways to get Pox
    • Inhalation and skin contact
    • Also thru biting arthropods (anything with 8 legs)
  8. Small Pox
    Only one that has officially been eradicated from the world, but it remains in only 2 places; the CDC in Georgia and in Russia
  9. Avian and Pig Pox
    Species specific only
  10. Monkey Pox
    • Rare disease that occurs in Central Africa
    • Can affect African squirrels, rats, mice, rabbits, and prairie dogs
    • Most people are introduced to monkey pox thru prairie dogs at zoos
  11. Types of Hemorrhagic Fevers:
    • Yellow Fever
    • Hanta virus
    • Korean Hemorrhagic Fever
    • Marburg virus
    • Ebola
  12. Yellow Fever
    • In primates
    • Mosquitoes are vectors for the virus
    • Called yellow because it breaks down the the liver causing Jaundice, which turns nails and the whites of the eyes yellow
    • Types: Jungle (severe) and Urban (milder)
  13. Hanta virus
    • New World primates (have prehencile tails) and rodents
    • Rats and mice are the primary vectors
    • Most are confined to the Western US, but there are occasions in Asia and South America every day
    • Syndromes: Cardiopulmonary (heart and lungs)
  14. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever
    • Old World type of primate
    • Rodent vector
    • A form of Hanta virus
    • Causes kidney/renal syndrome
    • It's a little easier to treat
  15. Marburg virus and Ebola
    • Marburg and Ebola are very similar to each other
    • Found primarily in non-human primates
    • Bats are also carriers of Marburg
    • Very fatal: the cells break down and you hemorrhage out
  16. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
    • LCM or LCMV
    • From wild mice and pet hamsters
    • Through contact with animal, tissues, bedding, and urine
    • Can be aerosolized
    • Only latent mouse virus infecting humans; a mouse could have it and we would never know it until it was too late
    • Passed in utero; dangerous to pregnant women
  17. Measles
    Humans transmit it to monkeys
  18. Hepatitis (A-E)
    • In primates
    • Humans carry Hep. C (caused by needle sticks)
    • Once we get it, we can't get rid of it, only control/contain it
  19. Herpes simiae
    Non-Human primates carry Herpes B and humans carry Herpes A. If transmitted to each other, it will kill us
  20. West Nile virus
    • Carried by mosquitoes
    • Kills birds
    • Zoos are constantly worried about it
    • Can affect man, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, squirrles, etc.
  21. 3 phases of West Nile in humans
    • Asymptomatic: No signs of symptoms
    • Fever: Flu-like symptoms
    • Ensephalitis: Affects the brain; usually results in death if it gets that far
    • 100:30:1 - For every 100 people who get asymptomatic phase, 30 will get Fever phase, and 1 will get Ensephalitis phase
  22. Avian Influenza
    • H5N1
    • Kills the elderly, young, and people with incompetent immune systems
    • It starts to destroy your heart for people with weak immune systems
  23. Rabies
    • Central Nervous System (CNS) is affected
    • Shed in saliva 1-14 days before signs appear
    • 2 types: Furious (aggressive behavior; what you see in movies; foaming at the mouth) and Paralytic (rapid paralysis and death. also known as "dumb" form)
    • Not treatable once signs appear, so get vaccinated
    • Worldwide epidemic
    • Affects many carnivorous animals
  24. Rhabdo virus
    • Rabies
    • Geographically confined; Eastern US: raccoons, Midwest: skunks, and Western US: coyotes and foxes
    • No cat to cat transmission. Transmission of rabies is almost always thru bites but can also get thru an infected animals lick
  25. Incubation period of Rabies
    • Long and variable
    • It starts to grow and replicate in muscle cells
    • Takes about a week to establish itself, but symptoms might not show for a long time
    • Once symptoms show, it's usually too late
    • It will go to the nearest nerve ending. Takes a mm a day to climb up the nerves to the CNS, then to the spine, then the spinal cord and eventually the brain
    • Rabies doesn't affect the body until it hits the brain
    • Most animals are dead within a week (5 days) of getting rabies
  26. HIV
    • Retrovirus
    • Originated in monkeys in Africa
    • Chimps and monkeys cannot get our form of HIV
    • HIV is very common in third world countries
    • Most mammal species have an equivalent; most similar to humans is FIV in cats
  27. Chlamydia
    Intracellular parasite
  28. Life cycle of Chlamydia
    • Infectious particle phagocitized by host cell
    • Particle not killed, organizes into larger particle (vegetated state)
    • Divides and multiplies, filling phagosome
    • Particles released, infect new cells
  29. Psittacosis
    • Respiratory infection from birds
    • Most common in birds like parrots
    • If your bird become infected, you can get it from them
  30. Rickettsia
    Fastidious intracellular parasites
  31. Life cycle of Rickettsia
    • Local replication, then goes into circulation; initial symptoms
    • Invades endothelial cells, destroys them, causes inflammatory respiratory rash
  32. Rickettsial Diseases
    • Q Fever
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  33. Q Fever
    • Coxiella burnetti
    • In sheep, goats, cattle; often no signs
    • In humans: aerosol causes fever, endocarditis, no rash
  34. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Rickettsia rickettsii
    • Carried by ticks (April-September are the high season for ticks)
    • Spreading rash on palms and soles of feet, may cause death if left untreated
    • Most common type in US
    • Slow recovery with treatment
    • The key to these diseases is early treatment
  35. Typhus
    • Transmitted by lice and fleas
    • Seen in crowded, dirty conditions
  36. 4 types of Typhus
    • Epidemic typhus
    • Murine typhus
    • Trench fever
  37. Epidemic Typhus
    • Spread by body lice
    • Most common form
    • If left untreated, will lead to Brill-Zinsser disease
  38. Murine typhus
    • Endemic disease
    • Always somewhere in the world
    • Transmitted through fleas who have bitten rats
  39. Trench fever
    • Body lice
    • Mostly seen in soldiers
    • Tolkien and Lewis both has this form
  40. Bacterial Diseases
    • Systemic: infects the entire body
    • Types: brucellosis, leptospirosis
  41. Brucellosis
    • Causes infertility and abortion in animals
    • Man is an accidental host, so cattle are vaccinated for it
  42. Leptospirosis
    • Shed in urine of many animals, especially rabbits
    • Infects people who boat and /or swim (especially dogs) in contaminated water
    • Sometimes a problem for dogs who roam free or hunt rabbits
  43. Plague
    • Bacterial disease
    • Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague)
    • Transmission: carried by rat fleas to man, man to rat, and man to man
    • There are over 2000 cases each year
    • Very common in parts of Western US because of the dry conditions, which fleas thrive on
  44. Types of Plague
    • Bubonic (lymph nodes swell)
    • Pneumonic (invades lungs)
    • Septicemic (in the blood)
  45. Lyme disease
    • Bacterial disease
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Carried by ticks, often deer ticks
    • Affects humans and animals
    • Spreading bullseye rash, joint pain, fever, fatigue, malaise (run down)
  46. Tuberculosis (TB)
    • Respiratory infection
    • M. bovis (cattle), M. avium (birds), M. tuberculosis (humans) M=Micobacterium
    • Chronic, debilitating, 1 year treatment
    • TB is the reason that primates were put behind glass in zoos; to protect them from getting TB from us
  47. Anthrax
    • Respiratory infection
    • Bacillus anthracis (spores)
  48. 3 types of Anthrax
    • Cutaneous: Most common form
    • Enteric: GI tract form; vomiting and diarrhea
    • Inhaled: Severe, often fatal; spore forming, the one that everyone fears
  49. Campylobacter
    • Enteric infection
    • Most commonly isolated enteric pathogen
    • Infects just about every species on the planet
    • Causes severe, watered-down diarrhea
  50. Salmonella
    • Enteric infection
    • Causes Typhoid fever
    • Many animals carry it
    • Very common in horses; they dehydrate and can die within 24 hours
  51. Shigella
    • Enteric infection
    • Dysentary
    • Only in primates and humans
    • 4 different serogroups and types
  52. Types of Cutaneous infections
    • Dermatophytosis
    • Erysipelas
    • Listeria
    • Impetigo
    • Tuleremia
    • MRSA
  53. Dermatophytosis
    • Ringworm, athlete's foot, and other fungal infections
    • Occurs in hair, nails, skin, feathers, etc.
    • Occurs in almost every animal
    • Cats and dogs get it as well, but you would never know unless they had any form of hair loss
  54. Erysipelas
    • Immune deficiency; affects diabetics and alcoholics
    • It causes skin ulcerations and impairs lymphatic drainage
    • Streptococcus
  55. Listeria
    • Commonly found in water, food, soil, etc.
    • Causes fever, muscle aches, nausea, neck pain and if left untreated, severe headaches
    • Listeria monocytogenes: very common in sheep and goats
  56. Impetigo
    • "school sores" - found in a lot of school aged children and in contact sports
    • Staphylococcus aureus or S. pyogenes
  57. Tuleremia
    • Rabbits
    • Francisella tularensis
  58. MRSA
    • Methacyllin Resistant Staphyllococcus Aurus
    • Eats away at your skin
    • Can colonize and invade your respiratory tract
    • Gets into your blood stream via open wounds
    • Common in diabetics and IV drug users
  59. Toxoplasma gondii
    • Protozoa infection
    • From infected cats, shed in their feces
    • Inhaled or ingested
    • Problem for pregnant women; causes many abortions and still births. Affects pigs, sheep, goats, etc.
    • Symptoms: Muscle aches that may last a month or more, swollen lymphnodes, flu-like symptoms
    • Treated with antibiotics
  60. Cryptosporidia
    • Protozoa infection
    • In most mammals, birds, and reptiles
    • Get from contaminated water
    • Very contagious
    • In healthy hosts, it runs its course
    • Old or young may die when infected
    • Can be passed from person to person and animal to animal
  61. Giardia lamblia
    • Protozoa infection
    • Most common are Intestinalis and Duodenli
    • Carried by most wild animals
    • Shed in feces; contaminates water
    • "camper's diarrhea"
    • May be hard to diagnose because it mimics other things
    • Usually runs its course in about 6 weeks
    • Consider all lakes and streams contaminated; can also get it in pools, hot tubs, jacuzzis, fountains, etc.
    • Causes intense abdominal pains, gas, bloating, headaches, diarrhea, nausea, distended abdomen, etc.
  62. Bites and Scratches
    Most common species: rats, mice, cats, monkeys
  63. Rat bite fever
    • Strep. Moniliformis
    • Fevers, aches, polyarthritis
    • Treated with penicillin
  64. Cat bite fever
    • Pasturella multocida
    • Causes local abscess
    • Not the same as cat scratch fever: cat scratch is benign
  65. Prion Dzs
    • BSE: bovine spongiform encephalitis; mad cow disease - fatal if ingested
    • Scrapie (in sheep)
    • CJD: human form
    • CWD: deer (chronic wasting disease)
    • All affect CNS and all are fatal
    • No treatment for any of them; basically on pain meds. until death
  66. Prevention of Zoonotic diseases
    • Disease surveillance
    • Sanitation
    • Personal hygiene: most important
    • Monitor personal health: routine check ups
    • Proper caging and air flow
    • Vaccinations: DTP (Diphtheria Typhus Pertussis)