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2011-05-10 20:11:03


A&P final
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  1. Which of the following would be considered an
    accessory organ of the digestive system?
  2. Which of the following lists the tubing in the
    correct order of food movement?
    • Oro, larynx, esophagus,
    • stomach, pyloric valve
  3. The regular contractions of the muscularis that
    push food through the entire gastrointestinal tract are known as
  4. The muscularis of most organs of the
    gastrointestinal tract consists of two layers of smooth muscle EXCEPT in the
  5. The pyloric sphincter is located at the junction
    of the
    stomach and duodenum
  6. Which of the following has the lowest ph
    gastric juice
  7. salivary glands include
    parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands
  8. Salivary secretions
    • aid in chewing and
    • swallowing, initiate digestion of starches, are needed for tasting, moisten and
    • lubricate food
  9. The salivary enzyme amylase (ptylin) functions
    to digest
  10. The small intestine is attached to the posterior
    abdominal wall by a fold of the peritoneum called the
  11. Which of the following lists the tubing in the
    correct order of food movement?
    • Pyloric valve, duodenum,
    • jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve
  12. The process of mastication results in
    • mechanical mixing of food
    • with saliva and shaping of food into a bolus
  13. The functions of the gallbladder include
    storage and concentration of bile
  14. Gallstones are usually made of crystallized
  15. The function of bile is to
    emulsify fats
  16. Most absorption of nutrients occurs in the
    small intestine
  17. the appendix is attached to the
  18. Which of the following lists the tubing in the
    correct order of food movement?
    • ascending colon, hepatic
    • flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon
  19. The large intestine absorbs mostly
  20. Which of the following lists the nephron regions
    in the correct order of fluid flow?
    • glomerular capsule,
    • proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
  21. Which of the following lists the vessels in the
    correct order of blood flow?
    • afferent arteriole,
    • glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries
  22. Bowman's capsule is
    • A double-walled funnel
    • surrounding a glomerulus
  23. The unit excretory structure of the kidney is the
  24. Podocytes are cells specialized for filtration
    that are found in the visceral layer of the
    glomerular capsule
  25. If the diameter of the efferent arteriole is
    smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole, then
    • blood pressure in the
    • glomerulus stays high
  26. In the myogenic mechanism of renal
    • smooth muscle in afferent
    • arterioles triggers vasoconstriction to decrease GFR
  27. The uptake of substances from the lumen of the
    kidney tubules is known as
    tubular reabsorption
  28. The normal daily volume of urine produced is
    1000 minus 2000 ml
  29. The function of the cremaster muscle is to
    raise and lower testes
  30. Teestosterone is produced by
    Leydig/interstitial cells
  31. Sperm production in the male requires a scrotal
    temperature that is
  32. The process of crossing-over, or recombination,
    of genes occurs during
    prophase I or meiosis I
  33. Final maturation of sperm cells occurs in the
  34. The acrosome of a sperm cell contains
    • hyaluronidase and
    • proteinase enzymes
  35. The principal androgen is
  36. The normal number of spermatozoa per milliliter
    of semen is
    100-150 million per ml
  37. Which of the following does NOT manufacture products that become part of semen?
  38. The female structure that is homologous to the
    penis is the
  39. Which of the following help move the oocyte into
    and through the uterine tube?
    fimbraie at the end of the fallopian tube
  40. The epithelium of the vaginal mucosa is
    • stratified squamous
    • epithelium
  41. The perineum is bounded by the
    • pubic symphysis, ischial
    • tuberosity, coccyx
  42. The part of the female reproductive system that
    is shed during menstruation is the
    • stratum functionalis of the
    • endometrium
  43. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium
    would be at its thickest
    late in the post ovulatory phase
  44. During the menstrual cycle, progesterone would
    be at its highest levels at
    post ovulation
  45. During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is
    produced by
    corpus luteum
  46. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus
    degenerates into the corpus albicans
  47. The folds of the peritoneum attaching the uterus
    to either side of the pelvic cavity are called the
    broad ligaments
  48. The opening between the cervical canal and the
    uterine cavity is called the
    external os
  49. What percentage of sperm cells introduced into
    the vagina normally reach the oocyte?
    less than 1%
  50. How many days after fertilization does
    implantation of the blastocyst occur?
    6 days
  51. The human gestation period is about
    38 weeks
  52. How many pairs of autosomes does a normal human have?
  53. The main target for ADH is the
  54. The islets of Langerhans are the endocrine
    portion of the
  55. The primary stimulus for the release of insulin
    • increasing blood glucose
    • levels
  56. Which of the following correctly lists the
    levels of organization from least complex to most complex?
    • Chemical, cellular, tissue,
    • organ, system, organism
  57. The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in
    the body is known as
  58. The two body systems that regulate homeostasis
    are the
    nervous and endocrine
  59. A person in an anatomical position will exhibit ALL of the following EXCEPT
    palms against the lateral sides of the thighs
  60. Anabolism is
    the synthesis of matter
  61. The four elements making up about 96% of the
    body's mass are represented by the symbols
  62. Peptide bonds are found
    in protein
  63. The smallest unit of matter that retains the
    properties and characteristics of an element is the
  64. the function of ATP is
    to store energy
  65. the most abundant inorganic substance in the human body is
  66. Which of the following represents accurate
    base-pairing in DNA molecules?
    • Adenine to thymine and
    • cytosine to guanine
  67. Organelles that contain enzymes for production
    of ATP are
  68. A function of mitosis is
    growth and cell replacement
  69. The process of transcription involves production of
    mRNA from a DNA template
  70. Solution A contains 5% NaCl dissolved in water.
    Solution B contains 10% NaCl dissolved in water. Which of the following best
    describes the relative concentrations of these solutions?
    • Solution B is hypertonic to
    • Solution A
  71. Which of the following lists the phases of the
    cell cycle in the correct sequence?
    • G1 phase, S phase, G2
    • phase, mitosis, cytokineses
  72. The tissue that forms glands is
  73. Which of the following tissues provides the
    greatest protection from mechanical injury?
    Elastic cartilage
  74. The type of epithelium seen in the urinary
    bladder is
    transitional epithelium
  75. The most abundant tissue in the body is
    connective tissue
  76. The function of keratin is to
    • make the skin tough and
    • waterproof
  77. The epidermis is made up of
    • stratified squamous
    • epithelium
  78. Sweat is produced by
    suderiferous glands
  79. Cyanosis is indicative of
    • insufficient oxygen in
    • blood
  80. Shaft of a long bone is the
  81. Bone grows in diameter by
    • appositional growth on the
    • Periosteal side of the bone
  82. ALL of
    the following bones would be produced via endochondral ossification EXCEPT the
  83. ALL of
    the following terms refer to processes or projections from bones EXCEPT
  84. The pituitary gland is located in the
    • sella turcica of the
    • sphenoid bone
  85. ALL of
    the following are in the proximal row of carpal bones EXCEPT the
  86. The prominence of the elbow is formed by the
    • olecranon process of the
    • ulna
  87. The main function of the appendicular skeleton
    is to
    facilitate movement
  88. A synarthrosis is a(n)
    • joint that permits very
    • little or no movement
  89. Dense connective tissue connecting one bone to
    another bone describes a(n)
  90. The greatest range of motion occurs at
    ball and socket joints
  91. The ability of a muscle to stretch without being
    damaged is
  92. Myosin is seen in
    thick filaments
  93. The refractory period is the time
    • following a stimulus during
    • which a muscle cell cannot respond to another stimulus
  94. The neck is divided into anterior and posterior
    triangles by the
  95. The group of muscles known as the hamstrings
    includes the
    • biceps femoris,
    • semitendinous, semimembranosus
  96. Collections of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called
  97. The autonomic nervous system is divided into
    • sympathetic and
    • parasympathetic
  98. White matter of the nervous system is composed
    • aggregations of myelinated
    • axons
  99. What would normally be found within the central
    canal of the spinal cord?
  100. The cauda equina is
    • the roots of the spinal nerves
    • hanging inferiorly from the inferior end of the spinal cord in the vertebral
    • column
  101. Spinal nerves are considered mixed, which means
    • they contain both afferent
    • and efferent fibers
  102. The function of arachnoid villi is to
    reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid
  103. The primary motor area of the cerebral cortex is
    located in the
    precentral gyrus
  104. Light is an appropriate stimulus for
  105. Neurons that transmit impulses from the
    receptors to the central nervous system are called
    sensory or afferent
  106. The central fovea is
    • the area of highest visual
    • acuity on the retina
  107. The auditory (Eustachian) tube connects the
    middle ear and nasopharynx
  108. To say that most organs served by the ANS have “dual innervation” means that
    • the organs are innervated
    • by both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
  109. Most autonomic sensory neurons are associated
  110. The percentage of total blood volume occupied by
    RBCs is called the
  111. Formed elements that are biconcave discs about
    7–8 mm in diameter are
  112. The layer of the heart wall responsible for its
    pumping action is the
  113. The left ventricle wall of the heart is thicker
    than the right wall in order to
    • pump blood with greater
    • pressure
  114. Vascular resistance depends on
    • size of the lumen of the
    • blood vessel, viscosity of the blood, total blood length
  115. Which of the following is NOT considered a function of the respiratory system?
    • Production of red blood
    • cells
  116. Which of the following lists the structures in
    the correct order of air flow?
    • Nasopharynx, oropharynx,
    • laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea
  117. A function of type II alveolar cells is to
    produce surfactant
  118. Boyle's law states that
    • at a constant temperature,
    • the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure
  119. When the diaphragm contracts,
    • the size of the chest
    • cavity increases, the lungs expand to fill the extra space in the chest cavity,
    • air from outside rushes into the lungs, introthoracic pressure decreases
  120. The bicuspid valve is located between
    • the left atrium and left
    • ventricle