investment final

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shorunke86
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investment final
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2011-05-12 08:45:22
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investment final
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  1. WHAT IS PRICE RISK?
    The uncertainty on bond prices that reflects the uncertainty on future market rates

    • remember,
    • r goes up; price goes down : (
    • r goes down; price goes up : )
  2. What is Reinvestment risk?
    After receiving the coupon payments, investors may not be able to reinvest the received money at the original yield to maturity

    • remember,
    • r goes up; price goes down : (
    • higher yield : )
    • r goes down; price goes up : )
    • lower yield : (
  3. Describe the Inverse relation between bond price and interest rate (convexity)
    An increase in a bond’s yield to maturity results in a smaller price decline than the price increase associated with a decrease in yield (the convexity)
  4. What is Interest rate sensitivity?
    For a small change in interest rate (Delta)r), how much will the bond price change relative to the original bond price (Delta)P/P)
  5. Describe the relation between maturity and interest rate sensitivity. (infer)
    The longer the maturity, the higher the interest rate sensitivity.

    As maturity increases, interest rate sensitivity increases at a decreasing rate
  6. Describe the relation between coupon rate and interest rate sensitivity (infer)
    The larger the coupon rate, the lower the interest rate sensitivity
  7. Describe the relation between yield and interest rate sensitivity. (infer)
    The larger the yield, the lower the interest rate sensitivity
  8. What is Macaulay's Duration?
    The effective maturity of a bond.

    Defined as the weighted average of the time at which payments are received

    The weight is proportional to the present value of each payment relative to the bond price

    Interest rate sensitivity is proportional to duration and not to maturity
  9. What are the properties of duration?
    Duration is equal to maturity for zero coupon bonds but shorter than maturity for all other bonds

    The duration of a perpetuity is (1 + y) / y

    The duration of a bond portfolio is the weighted average duration of its component bonds, with the weights proportional to the values of the component bonds
  10. Describe Immunization: As the market rate goes up..
    The price of a bond will drop (a loss) (Price risk)

    The return at which an investor reinvests the received coupon payments will rise (a gain) (Reinvestment risk)
  11. If an investor’s holding period of the bond is the same as the bond’s duration, then the ____and the ____will cancel out
    loss, gain

    Interest rate fluctuations will have no effect on the investor’s return
  12. What is Immunization Extension?
    By matching the durations of assets and liabilities, a fund/portfolio can immunize itself against interest rate changes

    As interest rate increases, both assets and liabilities decrease in their values by the same amount

    As interest rate decreases, both assets and liabilities increase in their values
  13. What is Passive Management in Bond Portfolio?
    • Immunization
    • Still need continual rebalance
    • Large interest rate changes
    • Passage of time

    • Cost-benefit tradeoff
    • Transaction costs vs. Perfect immunization
  14. What is active management in bond portfolis?
    • Bond swap
    • Based on interest rate predictions

    e.g., when we expect the interest rate to go down in the future, should we buy (or sell) bonds with shorter duration or bonds with longer duration?
  15. What is an interest rate swap?
    For a certain amount of notional principal, one party exchanges a fixed rate for a variable one, and the other exchanges a variable rate for a fixed one

    Notional principal: Used to calculate swap payments only. Not really exchanged
  16. What is a call option?
    The right to buy a specified asset at a specified price on or before a specified date
  17. What is a put option?
    The right to sell an specified asset at a specified price on or before a specified date
  18. What is in the money?
    An immediate exercise will be profitable

    • Call: S0 > X
    • Put: S0 < X
  19. What is out the money?
    An immediate exercise will not be profitable

    • Call: S0 < X
    • Put: S0 > X
  20. What is at the money?
    Asset price is equal to the exercise price (S0 = X)
  21. What is an American option?
    An option that can be exercised at any time on or before expiration
  22. What is an European option?
    An option that can be exercised only on expiration
  23. Of an American and an European option , which is more valuable? Why?
    American, it is more flexible.
  24. What rae some of the Put-call parity: limitations?
    Applies only to European options

    Each position is held until maturity

    Assuming that the underlying asset pays no dividend
  25. What makes up a protective put?
    asset + put
  26. What makes up a covered call?
    asset- call
  27. what makes up a straddle call?
    call+ put
  28. what makes up a collar
    asset+put-call
  29. What is a vertical money spread?
    Mix of options with different exercise prices.
  30. What is a horizontal /time spread?
    Mix of options with different expiration dates.
  31. What is the intrinsic value of an option?
    payoff of an option under the current underlying asset price.
  32. What is the time value of an option?
    The difference b/w the observed option price and the intrinsic value
  33. How does share price influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call+, Put-
  34. How does Exercise price influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call-, Put+
  35. How does stock price volatility influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call+, Put+
  36. How does time to expiration influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call+, Put+
  37. How does interest rate influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call+, Put-
  38. How does Dividend yield influence option calls and puts respectively?
    Call-, Put+
  39. Option Pricing Models

    What does the Black-Scholes option pricing model show us?
    What option prices should be in equilbrium (the theoretical prices)

    The observed option prices may not be the same as the theoretical ones
  40. For a given length of time, we can
    always divide it into subperiods in which the underlying asset price either
    goes up or goes down. With infinite subperiods, the possible underlying asset
    price at the end of the given period follows a lognormal distribution
  41. Building on the law of one price, if we know what the
    underlying asset price will likely be, we know what the ________________
    likely be
    option value/price will
  42. In the Black-Scholes formula, we assume that the _________ (the theoretical one) is unknown but other variables are known to solve
    for price
    option price

    • We can also assume that volatility is unknown but other variables and the option
    • price (the observed one) are known
    • Solve for volatility
  43. If the observed volatility is larger than the implied
    volatility, the option is considered as a
    good buy
  44. Recall the relation between option value and stock price volatility

    If observed volatility > implied volatility, theoretical.........
    option price > observed option price
  45. What is Hedge Ratio?
    The change in the price of an option for a $1 increase in the underlying asset price

    Delta c / Delta S for call and Delta p / Delta S for put


    Make sure you know this very well


  46. If one option is for one
    underlying share, the hedge ratio can be interpreted as:
    • The number of shares required to
    • hedge against the price risk of one option

    • (1 / hedge ratio) would be the
    • number of options required to hedge against the price risk of one share of
    • stock
  47. Macaulays duration is less than modified duration except for:

    a. zero coupon bonds
    b. premium bonds
    c. bonds selling at par value
    d. none of the above
    (D)
  48. Is the decrease in a bonds price corresponding to an increase in its yield to maturity more or less than the price increase resulting from a decrease in yield of equal magnitude?
    the increase will be larger than the decrease in price.
  49. rank the interest rate sensitivity of the following pairs of bonds.
    (a.) bond A is an 8% coupon, 20 year maturity bond selling at par value.
    bond b is an 8% coupon, 20 year maturity bond selling below par value.

    (b.)Bond a is a 20 year non callable coupon bond with a coupon rate of 8%
    bond b is a 20 year, callable bond with a coupon rate of 9%, also selling at par.
    (a) bond b has a higher yield to maturity than bond a since its coupon pmts and maturity are equal to those of a, while its price is lower. Duration of B must be shorter.

    (b) bond a has a lower yield and a lower coupon, both of which cause it to have a longer duration than that of bond b. moreover, bond a cannot be called. Therefore, the maturity of bond a is at least as long as bond b.
  50. which of the following statements is false?

    a. a short position in a call option will result in a loss if the stock price exceeds the exercise price
    b. the value of a long position equals zero or the stock price minus the exercise price.
    c. the value of a long position equals zero or the exercise price minus the stock price, whichever is higher.
    d. a short position in a call option has a zero value for all stock prices equal to or less than the exercise price.
    c is false. it describes the payoff to a put, not an option.
  51. how would you describe passive bond portfolio management?
    • control risk
    • immunization/cash flow matching
    • balance risk and return
  52. how would you describe active bond portfolio management?
    trade on interest rate predictions

    • trade on markey inefficiencies.
    • looking for mispriced bonds.
  53. when we expect the interest rate to go down in the future, should we buy or sell bonds with shorter durations or bonds with longer durations?
    buy bonds with longer durations
  54. what is hedge ratio?
    the change in price of an option for a $1 increase in the stock price.
  55. modified duration__________ as coupon___________
    increases, decreases
  56. modified duration__________ as maturity___________
    decreases, decreases
  57. how do you find the maximum possible profit on a put?
    if the price goes to zero, what will you make.

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