intro biohazard

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Anonymous
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84927
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intro biohazard
Updated:
2011-05-09 23:24:38
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animal science
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intro animal mgmt
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  1. Harmful agents
    • A risk to humans or their environment
    • Especially one presented by a toxic or infectious agent
  2. 3 Major Types of Biohazards
    • Biological: Animals are hazardous; they are natural reservoirs for disease. they can also be a source of allergens
    • Chemical: all the cleaners we use for the animals; pest controls, contaminants in food and water. Some chemical hazards can turn into physical hazards
    • Physical: Being bitten or scratched. Even the friendliest animals will bite you if hurt/injured
  3. Factors to consider:
    • Infectious agent: Zoonotic or not (if it's zoonotic, we should be more concerned. Zoonotic dzs affect humans as well as animals)
    • Animal: Lab animals and Wild animals
    • Susceptible host: Healthy or ill; immunocompromised
  4. 3 factors for workers to get sick:
    • Mode of escape: from the animal; how does the infectious agent get out of the animal
    • Mode of transmission: to the worker; how does it get to us from the animal
    • Route of Exposure: Invade, enter, gain access to worker; once the disease/infection is in, how was it able to get thru
  5. Mode of Escape
    • Natural: Any body excretions (urine, saliva, feces, blood)
    • Skin lesions
    • Artificial: Biopsy samples
    • Blood collection
    • Necropsy
    • Surgical instruments
    • Vectors
  6. Mode of Transmission
    • Contaminated equipment: caging, racks, water bottles, etc. It doesn't matter what animal you're working with
    • Needle and syringe is the biggest source of contaminant; most frequently documented incident
    • Aerosols: The smaller the aerosol, the more they will linger. Larger particles settle on surfaces
    • Sources may be: animals, bedding, in vitro (tissue culture flasks)
    • Direct Contact: Workers themselves
  7. 4 Primary Routes of Exposure (listed from least likely to most likely)
    • Ingestion
    • Contact with mucous membranes
    • Inhalation
    • Direct Parenteral Inoculation (needle stick); most common
  8. 2 Major Concerns with Biohazards
    • Potential for infection by aerosols: once it becomes aerosolized, it's more likely to get inside of us
    • Severity of Disease: do we have to be worried about it or not
  9. Some other Concerns with biohazard control:
    • Characteristics of animals
    • Infectious agents involved: what do the animals harbor, and what do we harbor that could infect them
    • Training/experience of personnel
    • Activities/procedures being done
  10. Facility Managers
    • Decide who gets into the lab and who doesn't.
    • They also decide access levels for each person
  11. Barriers
    • Anything between you and and the biohazard
    • Could be what you're wearing, the airlocks, the cage, the room design, etc.
  12. Door warning Signs
    • Warn you about what you're getting into
    • Also gives you the name of who's responsible with internal phone number, home phone, and/or cell
    • The kind of animal must be listed as well as what level of biohazard is being dealt with
  13. Biosafety Practices and Procedures
    • Hygiene: wash hands frequently
    • PPE: Personal Protective Equipment; anything you wear as a barrier. However, it's the last line of protection
    • Needle/syringe use: most dangerous tool in the lab. Never recap and never use teeth. Every needle and syringe gets sterilized in labs before being disposed of
    • Pipetting: Mechanical
    • Housekeeping: Shouldn't use high pressure sprayers because they aerosolize everything. Update cleaners and chemicals. Autoclaving, washers, sweeping, mopping floors, etc.
    • Pest Control: Always done by outside sources. Never use chemicals around the animals unless completely necessary
    • Aerosols
  14. Containment (3 elements)
    • Laboratory practice and technique
    • Safety equipment
    • Facility design
  15. Primary Containment
    Protection of personnel and the immediate laboratory environment
  16. Secondary Containment
    Protection of the environment outside of the laboratory
  17. Risk Assessment
    Work to be done with a specific agent determines appropriate combination of these elements
  18. Laboratory Practice and Technique
    • Most important element of containment
    • Strict adherence to standard microbiological practices and techniques
    • Employees must be aware of potential hazards
    • Lab Manager must ensure proper training of employees
    • Develop a Safety Manual
  19. Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC)
    • Principle device used for containment
    • Three types
  20. Safety centrifuge cup
    Enclosed container designed to prevent aerosols from being released during centrifugation
  21. Facility Design/Construction (Secondary Barriers)
    • Contributes to the laboratory workers' protection
    • Protect persons outside the laboratory
    • Protects persons or animals in the community
    • Type of design based on risk assessment of hazards
  22. Facility Design/Constuctions may include:
    • Separation of lab areas from general public
    • Decontamination equipment
    • Hand wash facilities
  23. Biosafety levels
    • 4 exist
    • Designated as BSL 1-4
  24. Biosafety levels consist of combinations of:
    • Laboratory practices and techniques
    • Safety equipment and laboratory facilities
  25. BSL-1
    • Represents a basic level of containment
    • Relies on standard microbiological practices
    • No special primary or secondary barriers other than a sink
  26. Example organisms in BSL-1:
    • Bacillus subtilis
    • Naegleria gruberi
    • infectious canine hepatitis virus
    • exempt organisms under the NIH Recombinant DNA guidelines
  27. BSL-2
    • Primary hazards to personnel are contaminated needles/sharps, mucous membrane exposure, and ingestion of infectious materials
    • Must have both other primary and secondary barriers
    • Used for any human-derived blood, body fluids, tissues, or primary human cell lines
  28. Example organisms in BSL-2:
    • Hepatitis B virus
    • HIV
    • Salmonella
    • Toxoplasma
  29. BSL-3
    • More emphasis is placed on primary and secondary barriers
    • All lab manipulations must be performed in a BSC
    • Primary hazards to personnel working with these agents is autoinoculation, exposure to infectious aerosols, and ingestion
  30. Example organisms in BSL-3:
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • St. Louis encephalitis virus
    • Coxiella burnetii
  31. BSL-4
    • Primary hazards to personnel are respiratory exposure to infectious aerosols, mucous membrane or broken skin exposure to infectious droplets, and autoinoculation
    • All agents pose a high risk of exposure and infection to laboratory personnel, the community, and the environment
    • Practices, safety equipment, and facility design are for work with dangerous/exotic agents that pose a high risk of life-threatening disease

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