MA 203 A & P

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Shutrbug20
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84935
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MA 203 A & P
Updated:
2011-05-10 01:27:14
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Digestive System
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Chapter 11 Unit 10
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  1. Terminology
    • gastro = stomach
    • peri = surrounding , odonti = teeth , um = ending
    • gingiva = gums
    • gastro = stomach , enter = sm intestine , ologist = specialist
    • cheil = lips , osis = disease (cracks in corner of mouth)
    • stomat/o = mouth , myc = fungus , osis = disease
    • xer/o = dry , stom = stomach , ia = pertaining to
    • dys = difficult , phagia = swallowing
    • pyr = fever , osis = disease (heartburn)
    • steat/o = fat , osis = disease
    • cholang = bile duct , itis = inflammation
    • cholecyst = gallbladder , algia = pain
    • proct = rectum , ectomy = sergical removal
    • pexy = surgical fixation
  2. Digestive System
    Structure
    • Oral Cavity (mouth)
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  3. Digestive System
    Accessory Organs
    • Liver (stores glucose / produces bile)
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
  4. Upper GI
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
  5. Lower GI
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  6. Oral Cavity
    • Lips
    • Hard / Soft Palates
    • Salivary Glands
    • Tongue
    • Teeth
    • Periodontium
  7. Dentition
    • Natural teeth (4 types)
    • Baby = 20 , Adult = 32
    • Incisors (8) & Canines (4) = Cuspids (bite / tear)
    • Premolers (8) = Bicuspids (chewing & grinding)
    • Molers (12) = Tricuspids (chewing & grinding)
  8. Edentulous
    No teeth
  9. Saliva
    • Begins digestive process
    • Lubes food during chewing / swallowing
    • Parotid Gland = inside back of cheek
    • Sublingual Gland = under tongue
    • Submandibular Gland = floor of mouth near mandible
  10. Esophagus
    Connects pharynx to stomach
  11. Lower Esophageal Sphincter
    • Cardiac Sphincter
    • Between esophagus and stomach
    • Prevents stomach contents from entering esophagus
  12. Stomach
    • Fundus = top
    • Body = main
    • Antrum = lower
    • Rogae = folds to allow expansion
  13. Pylorus
    Narrow passageway connects stomach to small intestine
  14. Pyloric Sphincter
    Controls flow from stomach to Duodenum of small intestine
  15. Small Intestine
    • Where absorption of nutrients from chyme occurs
    • 20ft long
    • 3 sections:
    • Duodenum = 1st portion, smallest of sections, prone to ulcers, 10" long
    • Jejunum = middle portion, 8ft long, most absorption occurs, lined with villi
    • Ileum = last section, 12ft long, leads to large intestine
  16. Large Intestine
    • From small intestine to anus
    • Waste products of digestion are processed for excretion through anus
    • 5ft long
    • Main function to reabsorb liquid from chyme
  17. Large Intestine
    Cecum
    • Pouch from ileum to colon
    • Ileocecal Sphincter = controls from small intestine to large intestine
    • Veriform Appendix = hangs from lower cecum, worm like shape, contains lymphoid tissue
  18. Large Intestine
    Colon
    • Longest portion (4 parts)
    • Ascending Colon = up from cecum to liver
    • Transverse Colon = horizontally to spleen (R-L)
    • Descending Colon = down to sigmoid
    • Sigmoid Colon = "S"-shaped to rectum (most fecal made here)
  19. Large Intestine
    Rectum
    • Widest of large intestine
    • Last 4"
    • Ends at anus
    • Where defication occurs
  20. Large Intestine
    Anus
    • Lower opening of digestive tract
    • Flow controlled by internal and external anal sphincter
  21. Accessory Digestive Organs
    Liver
    • Secretes bile to digest fats
    • Stores bile in gallbladder
    • Biliary Tree = ducts from liver carry bile produced by liver to gallbladder and duodenum
    • Common hepatic duct
  22. Accessory Digestive Organs
    Gallbladder
    • Cholecyst
    • Stores bile for later use
    • Under liver
  23. Accessory Digestive Organs
    Pancrease
    • Behind stomach
    • Produces pancreatic juices to aid in digestion
    • Produces sodium bicarbinate to neutrilize stomach acids and digestive enzymes
  24. Digestive Enzymes
    • Responsible for chemical breakdown of food
    • Renin, Lipase, Pepsin
  25. Metabolism
    • All processes of body to use nutrients
    • Anabolism = build up of body cells and substances from nutrients
    • Catabolism = breakdown of body cells, releasing energy and CO2
  26. Absorption
    • Process of completely digested nutrients transported to cells
    • Villi = fingers in small intestine, more surface area PSI, contain blood vessels for absorption
    • Lacteals = absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins, transport via lymph system
  27. Mastication
    • Chewing
    • Breaks down food into smaller pieces
  28. Tongue
    • 4 Tastes
    • Sweet
    • Salt
    • Sour
    • Bitter
  29. Bolus
    Food ready to swallow
  30. Esophagus
    • Moves food by paristalsis
    • Wave-like contractions
    • 10" long
    • Top is protected by epiglottis
  31. Stomach
    • Converts food bolus into Chyme with chemicals
    • 3 layers of smooth muscle
    • Longitudinal
    • Transverse
    • Oblique
  32. Emulsification
    Pancreatic juices break down fats
  33. Large Intestine
    • Absorb water from waste
    • Form waste into feces
    • Expel through rectum / anus
  34. Borborygmus
    • Formation of gas from bacteria in large intestine
    • From waste breakdown
  35. Bariatrics
    Specialist to prevent and control obesity / disease
  36. Aphthous Ulcers
    • Canker soars
    • Mouth ulcers
  37. Herpes Labialis
    • Cold soars
    • Fever blister
  38. Bruxism
    Grinding teeth
  39. Cachexia
    Phisical wasting away (AIDS)
  40. Pica
    Craving non-food items
  41. Eructation
    Act of belching
  42. Hematemesis
    Vomitting blood
  43. Ileus
    Blockage of small / large intestine
  44. Ulcerative Colitis
    Affects only innermost lining of colon
  45. Cholelithiasis
    • Gallstones
    • Over concentrated bile in gallbladder
  46. Cholecystography
    X-ray exam of gallbladder
  47. Colonoscopy
    • Exam of entire colon
    • Will be sedated
  48. Sigmoidoscopy
    • Exam from anus to top of decending colon
    • Will not be sedated
  49. Appendicitis
    • Right lower quadrant pain
    • Fever
  50. Cirrhosis
    • Chronic destructive disease of the liver
    • Yellow fatty tissue
  51. Colorectal Cancer
    Most common in Sigmoid Colon
  52. Diverticulitis
    • Bulging pouch in intestine wall
    • Pain in left lower quadrant
    • Most common in sigmoid colon
  53. Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • AKA Spastic Colon
    • Alternaiting periods of diarrhea and constipation

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