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What is the difference between
microevolution and macroevolution?
Microevolution- evoluntionary change within a species, such that matting and producing fertile offspring is still possible.
Macroevolution- represents larger changes in the genetic code, meaning that even if mating could produce offspring, those offspring would be sterile or sickly.
What are fossils? What kinds of conditions are necessary for a fossil to be created?
- when organismal features are preserved long after death.
- needs to be in a sedimentary rocks, resin, flashfrozen and tar pits.
True or false: The fossil record is 98% complete and
researches are working to finish all classifications of the fossil record.
True or false: A fossil is mostly made of sediment
that has replaced the original organisms atoms slowly over time.
Who is Georges Cuvier? What 2 things is he most known for? Was he a proponent of evolution theory?
- father of comparative morphology and palebiology.
True or false: Geological strata are arranged in
the order they are formed. The oldest
layers are the deepest.
True or false: The fossil record represents the
absolute age of the organisms while radiometric dating gives the relative age.
How do scientists use radiometric
dating to determine the age of fossils?
What are two common isotopes used and in what circumstances can they be
Fossils provide indirect data for what
3 things that occurred when the fossil was alive?
behavior , physiology, and ecology
What is the Plate Tectonics
theory? What is continental drift?
plate tectonics- theory that earth's crustal plates float on semisolid mantle of molen rock called magma.
continental drift- moving plates.
What 3 things can change the earth’s climate
dramatically? (defined in your notes!)
- continential drift
- volcanic eruptions
- asteroid impacts.
True or false: Historical biogeography explains the
broad geographical distributions of organisms.
What is the difference between continuous and
continuous distribution- species occur in habitats throughout geographical areas.
disjuct- species occur in widely separated locations.
What is the difference between
dispersal and vicariance? Give examples of each.
Dispersal- creats new populations far from original
Vicariance- fragments populations by external factors.
Who defined the 6 biogeographical
realms that are still in use today? What
Define biota and endemic species. What is the difference between endemic and pandemic?
Biota: all organisms living in a region
- endemic species- occur nowhere else on earth.
- Endemic means 'confined to a particular area'
- Pandemic means 'spread over all areas'
What is convergent evolution? Know a
plant and animal example as discussed in class.
similar adaptations in disantly related organisms; similar selective pressures produce similar adaptation.
- cactus (new world) spurge (old world)
- shark( just a big fish) penguin (flightless bird) popoise (mammal)
True or false: Evolutionary lineages are inherently
True or false: Horses are modern representatives of a once diverse lineage that can be traced back as a linear progression of
True or false: The horse lineage follows one
macro-evolutionary trend in their increased body size over time, however it also is an exception to a different trend that most organisms have increased in
complexity (loss of toes and fused forelegs).
Name 3 differences between anagenesis
and cladogenesis. Which one is usually more successful?
- anagenesis- does not increase number of species.
- linear. speicies change into the next species.
incease number of species. highly branched. species can co exist withe the newly evolved species.
What is the gradualist hypothesis? Understand
the example discussed in class.
gradualist hypothesis- large changes resul from slow, continuous accumulation of small changes; accumulation of small channges ( a complete series of transitional fossils is rarely found)
What is the punctuated equilibrium
hypothesis? Understand the example discussed in class.
punctuated equilibrium hypothesis- periods of no change punctuated by rapid change (transitional forms would be rare) (mechanism: isolated populations with different natural selection forces)
What are 2 significant
macroevolutionary trends? Name an exception to each.
- Body size increased
- except for insects.
- morphological complexity increased
- horses hooves and snakes.
Understand the 3 morphological
novelties discussed in class and give examples of each.
- - traits adv. under new selective enironment
- - traits never evolve in anticipation of future needs.
- - each step in evolutionary lineage was advantageous in a particular environment.
True or false: traits never evolve in anticipation
of future needs.
Discuss allometric growth in humans
and chimpanzees. What similarities
the look of both babies are similar.
What is adaptive radiation? Give 2
examples as discussed in class.
clusters of related species with diverse ecological adaptations; ancestral species move into unfilled adaptive zone.
rise of the mammals after dinosaur extinction.
Define background extinction rate
& mass extinction. How many mass
extinctions have been documented? The
largest one occurred at the end of what period?
background extinction rate-
low ate, from enironmental change and poor adaptations, over lobal time scales, most species go extinct.
- Mass extinction- high rate over short time; climate changes from geological activity and asteroid impacts.
- largest one was the permian.
True or false: Extinctions are common in the
history of life on this planet.
Discuss the leading theory that led to the mass
extinction of the dinosaurs.
asteroid impact in chicxulub crater caused cloud of silt to suffocate many species, blocked out the sun, other species died of starvation. lost of Iridium was found in that strata around much of the globe, element common in astroids, rare on earth.
What is evo-devo? What is the
difference between homeotic genes and hox genes? What is a homeobox?
study of how genes in embryonic development regulate an organism's morphology. genes of development also regulate morphology.
many organisms share the common genetic tool kit for development.
- hox genes- control animal body plan.
- Homeobox -180 nucleotide sequence.