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  1. What is the difference between
    microevolution and macroevolution?
    Microevolution- evoluntionary change within a species, such that matting and producing fertile offspring is still possible.

    Macroevolution- represents larger changes in the genetic code, meaning that even if mating could produce offspring, those offspring would be sterile or sickly.
  2. What are fossils? What kinds of conditions are necessary for a fossil to be created?
    • when organismal features are preserved long after death.
    • needs to be in a sedimentary rocks, resin, flashfrozen and tar pits.
  3. True or false: The fossil record is 98% complete and
    researches are working to finish all classifications of the fossil record.
  4. True or false: A fossil is mostly made of sediment
    that has replaced the original organisms atoms slowly over time.
  5. Who is Georges Cuvier? What 2 things is he most known for? Was he a proponent of evolution theory?
    - father of comparative morphology and palebiology.
  6. True or false: Geological strata are arranged in
    the order they are formed. The oldest
    layers are the deepest.
  7. True or false: The fossil record represents the
    absolute age of the organisms while radiometric dating gives the relative age.
  8. How do scientists use radiometric
    dating to determine the age of fossils?
    What are two common isotopes used and in what circumstances can they be
  9. Fossils provide indirect data for what
    3 things that occurred when the fossil was alive?
    behavior , physiology, and ecology
  10. What is the Plate Tectonics
    theory? What is continental drift?
    plate tectonics- theory that earth's crustal plates float on semisolid mantle of molen rock called magma.

    continental drift- moving plates.
  11. What 3 things can change the earth’s climate
    dramatically? (defined in your notes!)
    • continential drift
    • volcanic eruptions
    • asteroid impacts.
  12. True or false: Historical biogeography explains the
    broad geographical distributions of organisms.
  13. What is the difference between continuous and
    disjunct distribution?
    continuous distribution- species occur in habitats throughout geographical areas.

    disjuct- species occur in widely separated locations.
  14. What is the difference between
    dispersal and vicariance? Give examples of each.
    Dispersal- creats new populations far from original

    Vicariance- fragments populations by external factors.
  15. Who defined the 6 biogeographical
    realms that are still in use today? What
    are they?

    • nearartic
    • neotropical
    • ethiopian
    • paleartic
    • oriental
    • australian
  16. Define biota and endemic species. What is the difference between endemic and pandemic?
    Biota: all organisms living in a region

    • endemic species- occur nowhere else on earth.
    • Endemic means 'confined to a particular area'
    • Pandemic means 'spread over all areas'
  17. What is convergent evolution? Know a
    plant and animal example as discussed in class.
    convergent evolution- similar adaptations in disantly related organisms; similar selective pressures produce similar adaptation.

    • cactus (new world) spurge (old world)
    • shark( just a big fish) penguin (flightless bird) popoise (mammal)
  18. True or false: Evolutionary lineages are inherently
  19. True or false: Horses are modern representatives of a once diverse lineage that can be traced back as a linear progression of
    stages (anagenesis).
  20. True or false: The horse lineage follows one
    macro-evolutionary trend in their increased body size over time, however it also is an exception to a different trend that most organisms have increased in
    complexity (loss of toes and fused forelegs).
  21. Name 3 differences between anagenesis
    and cladogenesis. Which one is usually more successful?
    • anagenesis- does not increase number of species.
    • linear. speicies change into the next species.

    cladogensis- incease number of species. highly branched. species can co exist withe the newly evolved species.
  22. What is the gradualist hypothesis? Understand
    the example discussed in class.
    gradualist hypothesis- large changes resul from slow, continuous accumulation of small changes; accumulation of small channges ( a complete series of transitional fossils is rarely found)
  23. What is the punctuated equilibrium
    hypothesis? Understand the example discussed in class.
    punctuated equilibrium hypothesis- periods of no change punctuated by rapid change (transitional forms would be rare) (mechanism: isolated populations with different natural selection forces)
  24. What are 2 significant
    macroevolutionary trends? Name an exception to each.
    • Body size increased
    • except for insects.

    • morphological complexity increased
    • horses hooves and snakes.
  25. Understand the 3 morphological
    novelties discussed in class and give examples of each.
    • - traits adv. under new selective enironment
    • - traits never evolve in anticipation of future needs.
    • - each step in evolutionary lineage was advantageous in a particular environment.
  26. True or false: traits never evolve in anticipation
    of future needs.
  27. Discuss allometric growth in humans
    and chimpanzees. What similarities
    the look of both babies are similar.
  28. What is adaptive radiation? Give 2
    examples as discussed in class.
    clusters of related species with diverse ecological adaptations; ancestral species move into unfilled adaptive zone.

    rise of the mammals after dinosaur extinction.
  29. Define background extinction rate
    & mass extinction. How many mass
    extinctions have been documented? The
    largest one occurred at the end of what period?
    background extinction rate- low ate, from enironmental change and poor adaptations, over lobal time scales, most species go extinct.

    • Mass extinction- high rate over short time; climate changes from geological activity and asteroid impacts.
    • largest one was the permian.
  30. True or false: Extinctions are common in the
    history of life on this planet.
  31. Discuss the leading theory that led to the mass
    extinction of the dinosaurs.
    asteroid impact in chicxulub crater caused cloud of silt to suffocate many species, blocked out the sun, other species died of starvation. lost of Iridium was found in that strata around much of the globe, element common in astroids, rare on earth.
  32. What is evo-devo? What is the
    difference between homeotic genes and hox genes? What is a homeobox?
    evo-devo- study of how genes in embryonic development regulate an organism's morphology. genes of development also regulate morphology.

    homeotic genes- many organisms share the common genetic tool kit for development.

    • hox genes- control animal body plan.
    • Homeobox -180 nucleotide sequence.
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Final pt 3
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