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  1. Grammar
    The rules that control the meaning of a sequence of language symbols.
  2. Productivity
    The ability of language users to combine language symbols in new and creative ways.
  3. Reference
    The ability to associate arbitrary symbols with objects or events. e.g. different bird calls signal different things. Reference is also the characteristic of language that has been most clearly displayed by chimps.
  4. Situational Freedom
    Language can be used in a variety of contexts and is not fixed in a particular situation/time. e.g. being able to discuss something that happened to you last week.
  5. Personal Process Rule
    A personal rule that indicates the specific process by which a task is to be accomplished (also referred to as an implementation intention.)
  6. Personal Rule or Self Instruction
    A verbal description of a contingency that we present to ourselves to influence our behavior. Personal rules are most effective when they establish a bright-boundary between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
  7. Rule
    A verbal description of a contingency.
  8. Rule Governed Behavior
    Behavior that has been generated through exposure to rules.
  9. Say-Do Correspondence
    • A close match between what we say we are going to do and what we actually do at a later time. Can have roots in childhood reinforcement.
    • In general, research on language learning in animals has revealed equivocal evidence of language learning.
  10. Emotions
    complex phenomenon that includes a constant interplay of conscious feelings, cognitive assessments, & bodily responses. Emotions play a key role in what memories are encoded. Emotions affect how memories are stored AND how they are recalled. e.g. you may remember vivid details of 9/11 but not 9/10.
  11. Achievement Motivation
    when we approach a task we may unconsciously or consciously ask, “Can I succeed at this task?”, “Do I want to do this?”, and/or “Why am I doing this?” There are many reasons for both high and low effort/motivation. Motivation related to achievement (including academic) involves complicated issues.
  12. Stereotype Threat
    supported by the research of Claude Steele and others, indicates that high achieving minority students (and other groups for which there is a negative stereotype held about ability e.g. women and math) often become so concerned about avoiding the stereotype of intellectual inferiority (can be unconscious anxiety, etc.) that they fall apart in situations in which they are asked to demonstrate their competency, such as on standardized tests. Where there is a negative stereotype about a group, members of that group may fear being reduced to that stereotype. Stereotype or the possibility of being stereotyped triggers an internalized inferiority. Students who are “identified” with school/academics are more likely to succumb to ST. You don’t have to believe the stereotype to succumb.
  13. What are Problems of Motivation?
    Problems of motivation are rarely seen early in life/school. Motivational problems seem to increase over time and become more serious – effecting choices later in life.
  14. Problems of motivation with overachievers
    Problems of motivation can also occur in high achievers and go unrecognized. For example, a student may play it “safe”/not challenge themselves intellectually and this can go unrecognized because they achieve. Relatively high achieving students who are not performing at their capacity can be easily overlooked.
  15. Impression Management
    People exert a fair amount of energy to look competent. Some of these strategies can promote achievement and other hinder it (e.g. not asking questions).
  16. How does perceptions of ability affect motivation and learning?
    Perceptions of ability matter greatly with regard to motivation and learning. How we approach a task can have a lot to do with our views of ability. Student’s concepts of intellectual ability have important implications for their behavior.
  17. Entity Concept of Ability
    a belief that intelligence (IQ) is distributed unevenly – some have it and others don’t (these individuals may exert a fair amount of energy to look smart while doubting their abilities. “I’m just not good at math.”).
  18. Instrumental-Incremental Concept of Ability
    a belief that ability is expandable and increases through one’s instrumental behavior (these individuals would exert energy to be smart because they see intelligence as malleable/changeable. “If I work hard enough, I will be able to do it.” An individual’s concept of ability (entity or instrumental-incremental) effects how much effort is applied. An entity viewpoint would tend to diminish the view of the role of effort. Students with an entity view are especially vulnerable when they encounter difficulty as their self-efficacy decreases. These students are more likely to show defensive or self-defeating strategies when there is a challenge.
  19. Self-Worth Theory
    (as proposed by Covington) self-worth, like self-esteem, is an appraisal of one’s own value. Humans strive to maintain self-worth (internal and external views or how they see themselves and how they would like the public to see them). To avoid the negative implications of failure or a low ability attribution of failure individuals might engage in some pretty self-defeating strategies – for example: minimizing participation in class, public refusal and devaluing of education, false effort, excuses, procrastination, setting unattainable performance goals, and selecting very difficult tasks. Taking up any of these strategies enables the individual, and others for that matter, to maintain a positive view of that individual’s ability and attribute an individual’s failure to outside causes and not the individual’s innate ability/intelligence.
  20. What is success without learning?
    In achievement situations, individuals can demonstrate “success” without learning. Examples of this include: cheating, attempting only easy tasks, having low aspirations, and over-striving. These strategies may reduce anxiety or humiliation in the short run but inhibit real learning.
  21. Trait anxiety
    more stable anxiety.
  22. State anxiety
    temporary anxiety perhaps brought out in certain situations or contexts.
  23. Achievement Anxiety
    anxiety that can debilitate performance by interfering with learning and retrieval of information. Often attributed with low perceptions of academic competence. However, it isn’t always a bad thing. For some people a small amount of anxiety may even facilitate achievement.
  24. Learning Goals
    centered around mastery and developing understanding and skills; increasing competence; learning new things.
  25. Performance Goals
    concern performing better than others; demonstrating more intelligence; winning approval; looking smart.
  26. What can learning and performance goal do for you?
    Both learning and performance goals can fuel achievement and are universal and normal. All students want to be validated for their skills and accomplishments and they also want to develop their skills and knowledge. However, learning and performance goals can often be in conflict and the question becomes which is more important.
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Exam 4: Study Guide Terms
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