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What were Wilson's plans for the league? (5)
- All major nations to join the league
- All nations to disarm
- All disputes to be settled by the league
- All decisions made by league are to be followed
- If a member broke LON law, then countries were forbidden to trade with them, and military would be sent in to settle.
What were the feelings of the European and the USA people towards the USA joining the league?
- Europeans wanted them to join. Thought their influence and power would maintain peace.
- American people did not want USA to join.
Why did the USA people not want the USA to join the league? (4)
- It enforced the TOV, of which many americans disliked.
- They wanted to avoid sending troops away (still stricken by war).
- Economic issues would pursue, many thought USA would sign a 'blank cheque' (spend any amount of money to settle disputes)
- Many were anti-british or anti-french - why should the USA solve their problems?
Did USA end up joining the league? Why/why not?
NO! They did not. Due to lack of support by the American Congress and people.
What were the aims of the league? (4)
- Discourage aggression
- Encourage co-operation between countries (especially for business and trade)
- Encourage nations to disarm
- Improve living and working conditions for people worldwide.
When was the league founded?
Who were the two most powerful countries in the league?
Britain and France
Were Britain and France capable of leading the league? Why/why not?
No at the time they were not. They had both been severely weakened by WWI, leaving both not as powerful as before. Compared to the USA, they didn't have as many resources and influence.
What was the fault both Britain and France had that would threaten the league's effectiveness?
- Both had high self interest:
- Britain wanted to strengthen and rebuild it's empire and trade.
- France wanted to conjure a strong military force in the league in order to defend itself (and possibly attack) Germany. It would even bypass league laws in order to do so.
Who were the league's permanent members of council? (4)
In what year did Japan leave the league? What year did Germany leave?
1933 for both.
In what year did Germany join the league?
How was the LON structured? (Name committees and etc). (9)
- The council
- The assembly
- The permanent court of justice
- The secretariat
- The international labour organisation
- The mandates commission
- The refugees commission
- The slavery commission
- The health committee
What was the job of the assembly? (3) And who was part of it?
- Admitting new members to the league
- Appointing temporary members to the council
- Budgetting the league
One member from every country in the world
What was the job of the council? And who was part of it?
To make decisions on arising problems.
4 Permanent members (France, Britain, Italy and Japan), + temporary members elected by the assembly.
What were the three weapons of the league? (plus detail) (3)
- Moral condemnation. League would decide which country was the 'aggressor' and tell them to stop.
- Economic sanctions. No trade with the aggressor
- Military force. Armed forces of military countries would be used against aggressor.
Which of the league's three weapons was most effective and why? Why weren't the other two as effective?
- Economic sanctions were the most effective.
- The other two were not effective as countries would not listen to moral condemnation due to the lack of military force (countries would not lose anything if they opposed the league). There was only small military as countries did not want to sacrifice their own soldiers, and did not want to start any disputes.
What did the permanent court of justice do? (2)
It sorted out border disputes, plus give legal advice to the assembly or council.
What was the job of the mandates commission?
To ensure that the countries taken under the care of the LON were not used by Britain or France for self purpose.
Border disputes: What happened in Vilna? When did it happen?
1920, between poland and lithuania. Lithuania appealed to league as Poland was trying to take over. League did nothing - due to personal feelings of France and Britain. =FAILURE=
Border disputes: What happened in Upper Silesia? When did it happen?
1921, border between Germany and Poland. A plebiscite was issued as area was inhabited by both Germans and Polish people. Area was split according to plebicite results. Both countries accepted the decision. =SUCCESS=
Border disputes: What happened in Aaland Islands? When did it happen?
1921, between Sweden and Finland. Both wanted aaland islands and were prepared to fight for them. Appealled to the league. League decided islands should go to Finland, both sides agreed. =SUCCESS=
Border disputes: What happened in Corfu? When did it happen?
1923, border between Greece and Albania. Each attacked each other (slaughters). Mussolini used his permanent council status to persuade. In the end, matter was 'settled' by League, but Mussolini had tampered. =FAILURE=
What was the Geneva Protocol? Did Britain sign it?
Protocol to avoid dirty work by members as done in Corfu. Britian did not sign due to British people's votes against threatening British self interests.
Border disputes: What happened in Bulgaria? When did it happen?
- 1925, between Greece and Bulgaria. Greece invaded Bulgaria and were killed. League condemned Greece (moral sanctions) and greeks obeyed. =SUCCESS=
- Although, they brought up the topic of 'different rules' for big states (eg. Italy) compared to smaller states (themselves). << Another flaw of the league.
What were the successes of the league? (besides any border disputes). (with details) (5)
- Refugees - returned approx 400,000 people back to their home countries. Also set up refugee settings for Turks in 1922 , taking care to keep area disease free.
- Working Conditions - Banned poisonous white lead paints from industry. Also introduced working hours scheme - wasn't popular due to costs.
- Health - Defeated leprosy, lowered malaria (by killing mosquitoes) and helped contain plague in USSR.
- Transport - marked shipping lanes and created international highway code for road users
- Social problems - Shut down illegal drug trade companies, as well as freed 200,000 slaves from Sierra Leone. Lowered death rates on African railway from 50% to 4%
Was disarmament a success in the 1920's? Why/why not?
No. This is because no other countries wanted to fully disarm (unless others disarmed first). Although, it wasn't a serious let down as two very important treaties had been produced, promsing more peace.
What were the two agreements created in the process of discussing internation disarmament?
- The Locarno treaties
- The Kellogg-Briand pact
What were the agreements ensured by the Locarno treaties? (3)
- Germany would accept borders with France and Belgium. Britain and Italy would protect France if Germany breeched.
- Germany would accept that Rhineland remain demilitarised.
- France and Germany would solve any disputes through the LON
What was a league member benefit created by the Locarno treaties?
That Germany would be seen peaceful enough to join the league. (1926)
When were the Locarno treaties created?
What did the Kellogg-Briand pact ensure? What was the publics reaction?
- That all countries would use their armies strictly to defend themselves only.
- Public saw this as phenominal event, and definitely felt safer than they had been for a long time.
When was the Kellog-Briand pact created?
What was the Dawes plan? When was it created - and who was it reliant on?
1924, Dawes plan was a plan to recover the economy in western europe. It did this by having the USA input money in order for western europe to rebuild and eventually increase profits, employment and trade.
In what way was the Dawes plan beneficial to peace?
It encouraged trade between countries, making it less likely countries would go to war.