Personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors
define personality disorder
Personality Disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it
odd or eccentric.
Cluster A includes
paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal
dramatic, emotional, erratic.
Cluster B includes
antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic
anxious or fearful
Cluster C includes
avoidant, dependant and obsessive-compulsive
What is the lifetime prevalence of personality disorders?
When were personality disorders added to the DSM?
Personality disorders are coded on Axis ____ in the DSM.
How are Axis I and Axis II disorders distinguished?
Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders
Axis II: Personality disorders and intellectual disabilities (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
What three personality disorders have been validated through empirical research?
What is an alternative to the current categorization method used in the DSM?
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is an international standard diagnostic classification for a wide variety of health conditions. Chapter V focuses on "mental and behavioural disorders" and consists of 10 main groups
What are some of the problems with personality disorder categorizations?
Many symptoms can be applied to different diagnosis so it may be difficult to differentiate
a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components
Your text states that this chapter addresses anxiety problems that do not include psychosis or impairment that requires hospitalization; however
some of these disorders can cause hospitalization, serious impairment, and some can look psychotic – e.g. OCD
the 1-year prevalence rate for combined anxiety disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
excessive anxiety and worry, lasting at least 6 months and affecting many areas of a persons life
abrupt onset of intense anxiety or terror than can usually come with
shortness of breath
dizziness or faintness
shaking and/or sweating
fear of loss of control
fear of specific objects, people, or situations and the recognition that fear is out of proportion with reality and the fear is out of voluntary control.
Some specific phobias are
animals - snakes, or dogs
fear related to public scrutiny
often occurs with panic attacks, it is the fear of open or unfamiliar places. person may develope panic attacks and try to avoid places that they may occur in.
persistant obsessions and upsetting thoughts that can not be overcome. also occurs with compulsions - rituals to control the anxiety those thoughts produce. the person is unable to resist and this causes them impairment
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
exposure to traumatic event and intense fear, helplessness and horror. person re-experiences the event and experiences hyper-arousal and avoidence
Freud believed that anxiety stemmed from unconscious conflicts often related to the expression or fulfillment of our sexual and aggressive drives. Repression prevents us from experiencing conflict, but can lead to other symptoms, such as somatic complaints and dissociative symptoms (paralysis, loss of voice, physical pain, nausea, other, etc). Defense mechanisms operate to minimize the conflict, though they do not necessarily work and can lead to other maladaptive behaviors.
classical conditioning principles and exposure therapies
unrealistic appraisals of situations, overestimation of danger, combining cognitive and behavioral techniques to change beliefs and behaviors
When understanding abnormal behaviors and diagnoses, researchers and clinicians in the fields of mental health want to know information in the five main areas I. - V
I - Description
II - Etiology
III - Risk Factors
IV - Epidemiology
V - Prognosis
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly.
the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted. Does it measure what it is intended to measure?
these four areas below are what the DSM uses to identify and differentiate among diagnoses
• Symptoms - type and number
• Impairment (or distress) in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning
• Differential diagnosis - Can symptoms be explained by another mental diagnosis or a physical illness?
Our current understanding of the cause of the disorder, i.e, What is the balance of nature and nurture?
Etiology - Biological Factors
Brain structure and organization
Biological Factor - Genetic
What is the multifactoral polygenetic model?
Biological Factor - Epigenetic
this is different from gene mutation and Darwin’s theory of natural selection (hint: chemicals that act as software vs. hardware)
Biological Factor - Perinatal Influences
the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia is an example of this
Biological Factor - Brain structure and organization
•When we talk about structure, we want to know if certain areas of the brain are implicated; when we talk about organization, we what to know if there are differences in the ways the neurons are connected or organized throughout the brain. Know what we learned about organization of neurons in our brain, specifically what is meant by the “small world network” model.
Biological Factor - Brain Neurotransmitters
Know generally how these are related to the firing of neurons in our brains. Where are they located between neurons?
Biological Factors - Endocrine System
• e.g, flight or fight response and release of cortosol in situations of stress. Know how the model of cortisol release under stress is an example of how stress can change the balance of chemicals in our body, which in turn, changes how we feel and respond (in other words, the environment is changing our biology)
Etiology - Environmental explanations
As we gain more knowledge of human physical development and we better understand our brain and nervous system functioning, the model of a separation between biological and environmental influences comes more and more into question. We are moving toward a much more integrative and fluid model of the interaction between environmental influences on human development and our biological functioning.
Etiology - Environmental explanations - specific schools of thought
‣ psychodynamic (Note: Freud’s theory of libido was an attempt to incorporate biological phenomena, e.g., sexual drives and how they “drive” development) ‣ cognitive-behavioral ‣ humanistic
Etiology - Environmental explanations -Relationship with primary caretakers
more generally, this is thought to be important in many theoretical and empirical models of human development
Etiology - Environmental explanations - Stress and Coping Model
role of stressors, either chronic or acute, coping, and resilience.
*risk factors and protective factors
Risk Factors and Protective Factors - Risk Factors or Vulrnerability
When thinking about diagnoses, we want to know what factors are that increase the likelihood that someone will develop an illness or experience significant distress
Risk Factors and Protective Factors - Protective Factors
we want to know what factors reduce the likelihood that someone will develop an illness or experience significant distress
Risk factors and protective factors can be
biological or environmental, e.g., genetic, biological/physiological characteristics, personality characteristics, coping skills, social class, exposure to trauma, etc.
Resilience refers to one’s ability to
cope effectively or resist the negative effects of risk factors when exposed to them, i.e., what enables someone to do well in a situation when most people in a similar situation would be negatively impacted
Risk factors and _______ are often confused
etiology. Risk factors are thought of as conditions that increase the likelihood of an illness occurring, without being the root cause, though they are sometimes confused and can change as we gain more information about diagnoses. To illustrate the difference between causes and risk factors with a more common illness, I may be more likely to catch the flu if my immune system is weakened by other problems. This increases the likelihood that I will get sick, but is not the cause of my sickness; it is caused by a virus.
How common is this diagnosis? How often does it occur? Are there certain groups of people who are more likely to obtain this diagnosis, based on age, gender, ethnic and cultural differences? Is there a difference in the distribution of this diagnosis among different populations of people or in different geographical areas or the time it occurs in history?
Epidemiology - factors
ethnic and cultural differences
historical differences (cohort effect)
What is the anticipated course of impairment, the likely extent of recovery, and the likelihood of a recurrence?
Prognosis - we also want to know
what types of treatments are effective?
1) Psychotherapies -
2) Psychotropic medications - Know what main neurotransmitter is implicated in schizophrenia, and what main neurotransmitter is implicated in depression. What is the first line of treatment for bipolar illness?
What can other cultures teach us about our understanding of mental illness and abnormal behaviors?
• mind and body are not separate
• individual vs. collaborative/group emphasis
• our way is not always the best, even if it is based on science