Ab Psych Final

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evancour
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85004
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Ab Psych Final
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2011-05-10 11:31:55
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Final Exam
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  1. define personality
    Personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors
  2. define personality disorder
    Personality Disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it
  3. Cluster A:
    odd or eccentric.
  4. Cluster A includes
    paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal
  5. Cluster B:
    dramatic, emotional, erratic.
  6. Cluster B includes
    antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic
  7. Cluster C:
    anxious or fearful
  8. Cluster C includes
    avoidant, dependant and obsessive-compulsive
  9. What is the lifetime prevalence of personality disorders?
    10-15%
  10. When were personality disorders added to the DSM?
    1980
  11. Personality disorders are coded on Axis ____ in the DSM.
    II
  12. How are Axis I and Axis II disorders distinguished?
    Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders

    Axis II: Personality disorders and intellectual disabilities (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
  13. What three personality disorders have been validated through empirical research?
    • Boarderline
    • Antisocial
    • Schizotypal
  14. What is an alternative to the current categorization method used in the DSM?
    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is an international standard diagnostic classification for a wide variety of health conditions. Chapter V focuses on "mental and behavioural disorders" and consists of 10 main groups
  15. What are some of the problems with personality disorder categorizations?
    Many symptoms can be applied to different diagnosis so it may be difficult to differentiate
  16. define anxiety
    a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components
  17. Your text states that this chapter addresses anxiety problems that do not include psychosis or impairment that requires hospitalization; however
    some of these disorders can cause hospitalization, serious impairment, and some can look psychotic – e.g. OCD
  18. the 1-year prevalence rate for combined anxiety disorders
  19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    excessive anxiety and worry, lasting at least 6 months and affecting many areas of a persons life
  20. Panic Disorder
    • abrupt onset of intense anxiety or terror than can usually come with
    • shortness of breath
    • dizziness or faintness
    • shaking and/or sweating
    • chest pain
    • feeling detached
    • fear of loss of control
  21. Phobias are
    fear of specific objects, people, or situations and the recognition that fear is out of proportion with reality and the fear is out of voluntary control.
  22. Some specific phobias are
    • animals - snakes, or dogs
    • heights
  23. Social phobia
    fear related to public scrutiny
  24. Agoraphobia
    often occurs with panic attacks, it is the fear of open or unfamiliar places. person may develope panic attacks and try to avoid places that they may occur in.
  25. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    persistant obsessions and upsetting thoughts that can not be overcome. also occurs with compulsions - rituals to control the anxiety those thoughts produce. the person is unable to resist and this causes them impairment
  26. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    exposure to traumatic event and intense fear, helplessness and horror. person re-experiences the event and experiences hyper-arousal and avoidence
  27. Psychodynamic
    Freud believed that anxiety stemmed from unconscious conflicts often related to the expression or fulfillment of our sexual and aggressive drives. Repression prevents us from experiencing conflict, but can lead to other symptoms, such as somatic complaints and dissociative symptoms (paralysis, loss of voice, physical pain, nausea, other, etc). Defense mechanisms operate to minimize the conflict, though they do not necessarily work and can lead to other maladaptive behaviors.
  28. Behavioral
    classical conditioning principles and exposure therapies
  29. Cognitive-behavioral
    unrealistic appraisals of situations, overestimation of danger, combining cognitive and behavioral techniques to change beliefs and behaviors
  30. Biological Perspective
    • Genetic
    • Brain function
    • Drug therapies
    • o Benzodiazepines
    • o Antidepressants
  31. When understanding abnormal behaviors and diagnoses, researchers and clinicians in the fields of mental health want to know information in the five main areas I. - V
    • I - Description
    • II - Etiology
    • III - Risk Factors
    • IV - Epidemiology
    • V - Prognosis
  32. reliability
    Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A test is considered reliable if we get the same result repeatedly.
  33. validity
    the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted. Does it measure what it is intended to measure?
  34. these four areas below are what the DSM uses to identify and differentiate among diagnoses
    • • Symptoms - type and number
    • • Duration
    • • Impairment (or distress) in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning
    • • Differential diagnosis - Can symptoms be explained by another mental diagnosis or a physical illness?
  35. Etiology
    Our current understanding of the cause of the disorder, i.e, What is the balance of nature and nurture?
  36. Etiology - Biological Factors
    • Genetic
    • Epigenetic
    • Perinatal influences
    • Brain structure and organization
    • Brain neurotransmitters
    • Endocrine system
  37. Biological Factor - Genetic
    What is the multifactoral polygenetic model?
  38. Biological Factor - Epigenetic
    this is different from gene mutation and Darwin’s theory of natural selection (hint: chemicals that act as software vs. hardware)
  39. Biological Factor - Perinatal Influences
    the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia is an example of this
  40. Biological Factor - Brain structure and organization
    •When we talk about structure, we want to know if certain areas of the brain are implicated; when we talk about organization, we what to know if there are differences in the ways the neurons are connected or organized throughout the brain. Know what we learned about organization of neurons in our brain, specifically what is meant by the “small world network” model.
  41. Biological Factor - Brain Neurotransmitters
    Know generally how these are related to the firing of neurons in our brains. Where are they located between neurons?
  42. Biological Factors - Endocrine System
    • hormones.
    • • e.g, flight or fight response and release of cortosol in situations of stress. Know how the model of cortisol release under stress is an example of how stress can change the balance of chemicals in our body, which in turn, changes how we feel and respond (in other words, the environment is changing our biology)
  43. Etiology - Environmental explanations
    As we gain more knowledge of human physical development and we better understand our brain and nervous system functioning, the model of a separation between biological and environmental influences comes more and more into question. We are moving toward a much more integrative and fluid model of the interaction between environmental influences on human development and our biological functioning.
  44. Etiology - Environmental explanations - specific schools of thought
    ‣ psychodynamic (Note: Freud’s theory of libido was an attempt to incorporate biological phenomena, e.g., sexual drives and how they “drive” development) ‣ cognitive-behavioral ‣ humanistic
  45. Etiology - Environmental explanations -Relationship with primary caretakers
    more generally, this is thought to be important in many theoretical and empirical models of human development
  46. Etiology - Environmental explanations - Stress and Coping Model
    • role of stressors, either chronic or acute, coping, and resilience.
    • *risk factors and protective factors
  47. Risk Factors and Protective Factors - Risk Factors or Vulrnerability
    When thinking about diagnoses, we want to know what factors are that increase the likelihood that someone will develop an illness or experience significant distress
  48. Risk Factors and Protective Factors - Protective Factors
    we want to know what factors reduce the likelihood that someone will develop an illness or experience significant distress
  49. Risk factors and protective factors can be
    biological or environmental, e.g., genetic, biological/physiological characteristics, personality characteristics, coping skills, social class, exposure to trauma, etc.
  50. Resilience refers to one’s ability to
    cope effectively or resist the negative effects of risk factors when exposed to them, i.e., what enables someone to do well in a situation when most people in a similar situation would be negatively impacted
  51. Risk factors and _______ are often confused
    etiology. Risk factors are thought of as conditions that increase the likelihood of an illness occurring, without being the root cause, though they are sometimes confused and can change as we gain more information about diagnoses. To illustrate the difference between causes and risk factors with a more common illness, I may be more likely to catch the flu if my immune system is weakened by other problems. This increases the likelihood that I will get sick, but is not the cause of my sickness; it is caused by a virus.
  52. Epidemiology
    How common is this diagnosis? How often does it occur? Are there certain groups of people who are more likely to obtain this diagnosis, based on age, gender, ethnic and cultural differences? Is there a difference in the distribution of this diagnosis among different populations of people or in different geographical areas or the time it occurs in history?
  53. Epidemiology - factors
    • prevalence
    • incidence
    • gender differences
    • ethnic and cultural differences
    • age differences
    • geographical differences
    • socioeconomic differences
    • historical differences (cohort effect)
  54. Prognosis
    What is the anticipated course of impairment, the likely extent of recovery, and the likelihood of a recurrence?
  55. Prognosis - we also want to know
    what types of treatments are effective?

    • 1) Psychotherapies -
    • 2) Psychotropic medications - Know what main neurotransmitter is implicated in schizophrenia, and what main neurotransmitter is implicated in depression. What is the first line of treatment for bipolar illness?
    • 3) Others
  56. What can other cultures teach us about our understanding of mental illness and abnormal behaviors?
    • • mind and body are not separate
    • • individual vs. collaborative/group emphasis
    • • our way is not always the best, even if it is based on science
    • • we can learn from others

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