Biology 7, 23, 27, 31

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Biology 7, 23, 27, 31
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2011-05-10 13:23:59
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Biology 7, 23, 27, 31
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  1. To sustain life, an animal must gain nutrients, ________ ________, and shed waste products. This involves every cell in the body
    exchange gases
  2. For large animals, a true circulatory system is required to bring oxygen and nutrients close enough to cells for __________ to occur
    diffusion
  3. A circulatory system consists of (3 things):-
    -a heart (muscular pump)

    - blood (circulatory fluid)

    - a set of tubes/ vessels to carry the blood
  4. 2 types of circulatory systems:
    1) Open: Blood is pumped through open-ended vessels and bathes the tissues and organs directly. There is no distinction between the blood and interstitial fluid.- many invertebrates,incl. grasshoppers & mollusks

    2) Closed: = Cardiovascular System (Greek kardia (heart), vas (vessel)Blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid. - all vertebrates,incl. fish & human
  5. Land vertebrates have ________ circulation
    double
  6. 3 types of blood vessels:
    1) Arteries carry blood from the heart to the organs and tissues. (here, pulmonary arteries)

    2) Veins carry blood from the organs and tissues to the heart. (here, pulmonary veins)

    3) Capillaries transfer blood between arteries and veins within tissues.
  7. Double circulation is:
    circulation with separate pulmonary and systemic circuits; ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs
  8. The _______ circuit transports blood between the heart and lung
    pulmonary
  9. The ________ circuit transports blood between the heart and the rest of the bod
    systemic
  10. The path of any single blood cell is:
    always heart to lung capillaries to heart to body tissue capillaries and back to heart
  11. The mammalian heart has __chambers.
    4

    - 2 thin-walled atria that pump blood to ventricles and

    -2 thick-walled ventricles that pump blood to lungs and all other body regions
  12. The heart pumps in a rhythmic cycle of contraction and relaxation called the _____ cycle
    cardiac
  13. Materials are not exchanged directly between blood and body cells. Each cell is immersed in ______ fluid. Oxygen and nutrients diffuse from capillaries into the _______ fluid and then from the fluid to the tissue cells
    interstintial
  14. ______ blood cells (a.k.a. erythrocytes) contain hemoglobin, which transports oxygen.______ blood cells (a.k.a. leukocytes) come in 5 types & fight infections and cancer.Platelets are cell fragments involved in clotting
    Red

    White
  15. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets help trigger the conversion of _______ to fibrin, which forms a clot that plugs the leak
    fibrinogen
  16. _______ (most plants) i.e. HibiscusTwo cotyledonsBranched leaf venationRing of vascular bundlesFlower parts in 4s or 5s (or multiples)
    Eudicots
  17. what group of angiosperm have:
    Veins usually parallel
    MONOCOT
  18. what group of angiosperm have:
    One cotyledon
    monocot
  19. what group of angiosperm have:
    Vascular bundles incomplex arrangement
    monocot
  20. what group of angiosperm have: Floral parts usuallyin multiples of three
    Monocot
  21. what group of angiosperm have: Fibrousroot system
    monocot
  22. what group of angiosperm have: Two cotyledons
    EUDICOT
  23. what group of angiosperm have: Veins usually branched
    Eudicot
  24. what group of angiosperm have:Vascular bundles arranged in ring
    Eudicot
  25. what group of angiosperm have: Floral parts usually inmultiples of four or five
    Eudicots
  26. what group of angiosperm have: Taprootusually present
    Eudicots
  27. Most plants are
    Eudicots
  28. Roots lack _____ and live in the dark. Roots would starve without carbohydrates transported from photosynthetic leaves in the shoot
    chloroplast
  29. The terminal bud produces hormones that inhibit growth of the axillary buds = ______ ________
    apical dominance
  30. Plants have 3 types of tissues
    1) Dermal tissue - outer protective covering

    2) Vascular tissue - support and long-distance transport

    3) Ground tissue - bulk of the plant body; food production, storage, & suppor
  31. Dermal tissue consists of a layer of tightly packed cells called the epidermis and has a waxy layer called _______ reduces water loss. It is the first line of defense against damage and infection. (like epithelial tissue w/ keratin layer)
    cuticle
  32. Vascular tissue is composed of ______ and ________ arranged in bundles.(like circulatory system)
    xylem: non-living part of a plant’s vascular system; transports inorganic nutrients from roots to shoots.-

    phloem: transports organic nutrients (sugars/carbohydrates) and hormones from roots to shoots
  33. Ground tissue occupies that spaces between dermal and vascular tissues. Leaf ground tissue is called ______. (like adipose (fat) tissue)
    mesophyll
  34. The epidermis is interrupted by pores called _______ (singular _____) which allow for carbon dioxide exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells inside the leaf. Each ______ if flanked by two guard cells that regulate the size of the _____.
    stomata

    Stoma
  35. Vascular tissue is arrainged in a circular pattern in what group of angiosperm:
    Eudicot
  36. Vascular tissue is arrainged in a random pattern in what group of angiosperm
    Monocot
  37. Water and minerals enter through the epidermis. ______ = wheel spokes (lt.)________= wedges (dark
    Xylem, Phloem
  38. Plants cells have 3 structures that distinguish them from animals cells.
    1) Chloroplasts used in photosynthesis

    2) A large, fluid-filled vacuole

    3) A cell wall composed of cellulose
  39. Openings in cell walls called ____________ allow cells to communicate and exchange materials easily
    plasmodesmata
  40. Plant growth is _________, which means growth occurs throughout a plant’s life
    indeterminate
  41. Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots ______ ______ are found at the tips of roots and shoots; sites of primary growth
    Apical meristems
  42. ___________ growth increases the girth of woody plant
    Secondary
  43. Flowers typically contain four types of highly modified leaves called floral organs.
    Sepals—enclose and protect flower bud

    • Petals—showy; attract
    • pollinators

    Stamens—male reproductive structures

    • Carpels—female
    • reproductive structure
  44. A stamen has 2 parts

    1) ______- produces pollen, which houses cells which develop into sperm

    2) _______- elevates the anther
    Anther

    Filament
  45. A carpel has three parts

    1) ______- site of pollination

    2) ______- “neck” that leads to the ovary

    3) _____- houses ovules, which contain developing egg
    Stigma

    Style

    Ovary
  46. Plant life cycles involve alternating _____(2n) and ______(n) generations.- The ____generation is called the sporophyte. Specialized _____cells in anthers and ovules undergo meiosis to produce ____ spores.- The ____spores undergo mitosis and produce the ____ generation.The ______ generation is called the gametophyte
    • diploid haploid
    • Diploid, diploid
    • haploid, haploid, haploid, haploid
  47. Gametophytes produce gametes via mitosis.

    - The ____ gametophyte is a pollen grain.

    - The _____ gametophyte is an embryo sac
    male

    female
  48. _______ is the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma. _____ is carried by wind, water, and animals
    Pollination, Pollen
  49. The green color in plants comes from _______, which is an important light absorbing pigment in chloroplasts
    chlorophyll
  50. Carbon dioxide and water are waste products of _______ ______.
    cellular respiration
  51. Cellular respiration occurs in the _______ and uses oxygen to break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water
    mitochondria
  52. Photosynthesis occurs in ________ and uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen
    chloroplasts
  53. _______ are living things that are able to make their own food without using organic molecules derived from any other living thing
    Autotrophs
  54. Autotrophs that use the energy of light to produce organic molecules are called __________
    photoautotrophs
  55. _______ are the ultimate source of organic molecules for almost all other organisms
    Plants
  56. _______is the process by which photoautotrophs use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and wate
    Photosynthesis
  57. Photosynthesis occurs in ______ in plant cells
    chloroplasts
  58. Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the ______, the green tissue in the interior of the leaf
    mesophyll
  59. ______are tiny pores in the leaf that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit
    Stomata
  60. ______ in the leaf deliver water absorbed by roots
    Veins
  61. Like cellular respiration (oxidative phosphorylation), photosynthesis is a _______process
    redox
  62. _____reactions: electrons are lost from one substance and added to another.
    Redox
  63. During oxidative phosphorylation, the electrons lose potential as they travel down an energy hill, the electron transport system
    In contrast, the food-producing _____ reactions of photosynthesis reverse the flow and involve an uphill climb
    redox
  64. Photosynthesis occurs in two metabolic stages within a chloroplast.The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ______and NADPH.
    ATP
  65. Light energy is converted in the thylakoid membranes to chemical energy and ___.
    O2
  66. The _____cycle occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast
    Calvin

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