IS 352 - Test 3

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IS 352 - Test 3
2011-05-10 14:47:32
sun solar system layers earth

Test 3 Review
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  1. Nebular Hypothesis Theory
    the basic idea that the sun and planets formed from the same cloud of dust and gas in interstellar space - remnants of old stars that have gone supernova
  2. nebula
    huge rotating cloud of gas and dust
  3. Photosphere
    thin line emits light we see and heat we feel
  4. Chromosphere
    • can see during a total solar eclipse
    • layer next to photosphere
  5. Spicules
    bursts of gas that extend up from chromosphere up to 3,000 miles
  6. Corona
    • like petals on a sunflower
    • can see during total solar eclipse
    • outer most part of the Sun's atmosphere
  7. Source of Sun's NRG
    nuclear fusion
  8. 2 Types of Planets
    Terrestrial & Jovian
  9. Terrestrial - Planets and Characteristics
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars

    • Made mostly of rocky, metallic material
    • More dense
    • Lower escape velocity - speed that an object needs to reach in order to escape from the surface of a planet
  10. Earth's Escape Velocity
    7 mi/sec
  11. Jovian - Planets and Characteristics
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune

    • Made mostly of gases (H-He)
    • Less dense
    • Thicker atmospheres
    • Higher escape velocity
  12. Order of the Planets from the Sun
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
  13. Primitive Atmosphere
    • H & He CH4 NH4 (Ammonia)
    • composed original atoms. As the sun began to radiate heat gas was swept away by solar winds
  14. Early Atmosphere
    Gases that had been dissolved from molten rocks through outgassing (the release of gases that are dissolved in magma)

    • CO2 - 10%
    • WV - 80%
    • N - 10%

    • The Earth is still cooling off
    • 80% WV condenses, clouds form and begins to rain
    • Diminishes WV in the air
    • CO2 dissolved in the rain
    • The rest of CO2 taken up in the process of photosynthesis
  15. Present Day Atmosphere
    • Nitrogen - 78%
    • O2 - 21%
    • Trace gases - 1%

    Nitrogen is a very stable gas with a long residence life that accumulates over the years. The gases are important in sustaining life.
  16. 4 Variable Components of the Atmosphere
    • 1. Water Vapor
    • Absorbs heat given off by the Earth
    • Source of clouds and precipitation
    • 2. CO2
    • Absorbs energy radiated by the Earth
    • Keeps atmosphere warm
    • W/o we couldn't survive
    • 3. Aerosols
    • Smoke, dust, pollen, microscopic seed from plants
    • Act as condensation nuclei
    • Act as a place for WV to condense on
    • Necessary for clouds and fog
    • Give colorful sunsets
    • 4. Ozone
    • Triatomic form of oxygen - O3
  17. Earth Air Pressure at Sea Level
    14.7 lbs/in2
  18. 4 Layers of the Atmosphere Based on T
    • Thermosphere - absorption of short wave solar radiation causes T increase, very thin atmosphere, higher than 50 miles
    • Mesopause - 50 miles
    • Mesosphere - coldest avg. T, out of the ozone layer causes T to decrease
    • Stratopause - 30 miles
    • Stratosphere - 12-30 miles, ozone layer is here which absorbs UV rays fro the sun causing T increase
    • Tropopause - 7 miles
    • Troposphere - 7-10 miles, closest to the Earth's surface
  19. Homosphere
    • Uniform Composition
    • 78% - N
    • 21% - O

    • Closest to Earth's surface
    • A thick zone of atmosphere around the Earth
    • where the gases of our atmosphere are thoroughly and evenly mixed up. Weather and other influences insure that these gases remain mixed up. The Homosphere extends outward to an altitude of about 50 miles
  20. Heterosphere
    • Hydrogen
    • Helium
    • Oxygen
    • Atmospheric N
    • Earth

    Above the Homosphere gases are not evenly mixed. Instead they are layered according to how heavy they are. The lighter gases float to the top, while the heavier gases sink to the bottom. This region is separated into different layers of gases, due to the fact that at that altitude there are no forces to mix them up. There is no weather to stir the gases about.
  21. Ozone
    • Triatomic form of oxygen - O3
    • 2 Kinds -
    • Bad - ground level ozone, air pollutant, main ingredient in urban smog
    • Good - protects life on Earth from UV radiation, found in the stratosphere
    • Depletion of the Ozone layer is the result of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  22. Air
    a mixture of gases required for breathing, the stuff that the wind consists of
  23. Photosynthesis
    plant life uses CO2 to carry out metabolic processes
  24. CFCs
    • chlorofluorocarbons
    • odorless
    • non-toxic
    • inexpensive to produce
    • safe in the lower part of atmosphere - stratosphere
  25. Air Pressure
    the weight of the air above
  26. Ionosphere
    the outer region of the Earth's atmosphere; contains a high concentration of free electrons
  27. Outgassing
    the release of gases that are dissolved in magma
  28. Activity: Air Force
    molecules of air will eventually press together and fill up the space and keep water from going in. Water drops in a little until the entire space is filled
  29. Activity: Collapsing the Can
    • Start out with even pressure pushing in and pushing out
    • Water converted to WV when boiled
    • Steam drives out all other gases in the can
    • Steam prevents outside air pressure from crushing the can - still stabilized
    • Introduce ice and water - WV cools quickly condenses back to liquid state
    • Upside down keeps air from going in and void is created
    • Pressure difference - outside pressure crushes the can
  30. Activity: % of O2 in Atmosphere
    This activity only shows that oxygen exists and is needed for combustion. The purpose of this activity is to show you that not all activities out there are correct and you need to be discerning and investigate before using any activity in your classroom
  31. Activity: Greenhouse Effect
    • Solar NRG reaches the Earth as short wave solar radiation mostly in the form of light. Most is visible light, some is UV and other wavelengths
    • As NRG reaches the Earth's atmosphere, some is absorbed (UV by Ozone in stratosphere), and some reflected
    • When the Sun's NRG in the form of light reaches the surface of the Earth, that NRG is absorbed
    • It is then re-radiated by the surface of the Earth as long wave terrestrial radiation in a different form of head (infa-red)
    • Heat NRG does not pass through the atmosphere as easily as light so the atmosphere effectively acts as a blanket, absorbing and holding on to much of the heat NRG
    • Certain gases within the atmosphere are responsible for absorbing NRG and acting as a blanket
  32. 5 Greenhouse Gases
    • 1. Carbon Dioxide
    • 2. WV
    • 3. Methane - CH4
    • 4. CFCs
    • 5. Nitrous Oxide - laughing gas
  33. UV beads
    Beads are white until exposed to UV radiation. They contain special pigments that change color when they absorb UV radiation. Not affected by visible light
  34. Layers of the Earth
    • Crust - Continental & Oceanic, varied thickness, 22-40 miles
    • Lithosphere - Crust and upper mantle
    • Mantle - 83% of Earth total volume, Iron & Mg
    • Peridotite - dark & dense
    • Upper Mantle - Solid
    • Asthenosphere - liquid, convection currents
    • Lower Mantle - Solid
    • Core - 16% of Earth's total volume, Iron & Nickel
    • Outer core - liquid caused by pressure & T
    • Inner Core - solid
    • Center of the Earth - 3950 miles
  35. Differentiation
    the process by which heavy dense materials like Iron and Nickel sank under the force of gravity toward the molten center of the planet while the less dense materials floated to the top and this gives us the layered structure of the Earth
  36. Mineral
    a naturally occurring inorganic solid made of one or more elements with a characteristic crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition
  37. Rock
    minerals combine to make rocks
  38. 3 Groups of Rocks
    Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
  39. Rock Cycle
    Magma - molten fluid material forms inside the Earth eventually cools off and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface or above the Earth's surface (lava) -> Igneous Rock - formed from cooled magma -> (WEDL) -> Sedimentary Rock - formed from a pre-existing rock -> (HPF) -> Metamorphic Rock - forms beneath the surface of the Earth - formed from pre-existing rock that undergoes changes in physical or chemical makeup -> (Melting) -> Magma
  40. Top 2 Elements in Earth's Continental Crust
    • Oxygen - 47%
    • Silicon - 28%
  41. % of Earth's Surface Covered by Water
  42. Composition of Ocean Water
    • 96.5% - pure water
    • 3.5% - salts, gases -> (55% Cl + 31% Sodium = Sodium Chloride)
  43. Deep Ocean Circulation
    • Surface water sinks in the North Atlantic Ocean
    • Water becomes very cold and salty
    • Cold, salty water dense enough to sink to the depths of the ocean
    • Once it reaches a level of equal density the water spreads out
    • It flows past the equator into the Southern Hemisphere, past Antarctica and into the Pacific and Indian Oceans
    • Some of the deep waters are warmed and rise to the surface
    • This cycle of ocean water circulation from the surface to the depths of the ocean back to the surface again is referred to as conveyor belt cycling
  44. What is the densest water in the Ocean?
    Water that is cold and salty is denser than warmer less salty water
  45. Where might you find the densest water in the ocean?
    The densest water in the ocean is at the Poles.
  46. Characteristics of the Planets
    • Mercury - hottest, closest to sun
    • Venus - the evening star, next to sun and moon it is
    • brightest
    • Earth
    • Mars - red ball
    • Jupiter - alternating dark and light gas bands, rotating gas cloud in south, called Giant Red spot
    • Saturn - rings made of ice, dust and rocks
    • Uranus & Neptune - called twins because they appear blue due to gases