chapter #2 – bioenergetics of exercise and training

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  1. bioenergetics
    the flow of energy in a biological system, concerns primarily the conversion of macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats which contain chemical energy into usable energy
  2. energy
    defined as the ability or capacity to perform work. It is the breakdown of chemical bonds in these macronutrients that provide energy necessary to perform biological work
  3. catabolism
    the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, associated with the release of energy
  4. anabolism
    the synthesis of large molecules from smaller molecules can be accomplished by energy release from catabolic reactions
  5. exergonic reactions
    our energy releasing reactions and are generally catabolic
  6. endergonic reactions
    require energy and include anabolic processes and the contraction of muscle
  7. metabolism
    is the total of all catabolic and exergonic and anabolic or endergonic reactions in a biological system
  8. ATP
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  9. Adenosine Triphosphate
    allows the transfer of energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions
  10. what is the chemical makeup of the Adenosine triphosphate
    • adenosine
    • 3 phosphates
  11. Adenosine chemical make up
    nitrogen containing base and ribose (five carbon sugar)
  12. what is hydrolysis
    the breakdown of one molecule of ATP to yield energy

    requires one molecule of water
  13. what is the name of the enzyme that breaks down ATP
    adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
  14. myosin ATPase
    is the enzyme that catalyzes ATP hydrolysis for cross brdige recyclying
  15. Calcium ATPase
    for pumping calcium ino the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  16. Sodium postassium ATPase
    for maintaing the sarcolemmal concentration gradient after depolarization.
  17. what is the formula for the release of energy
    ATP + H2O <ATPase> ADP + P + H + Energy
  18. why is ATP classified as a high-energy molecule
    because it stores large amounts of energy in the calcium bonds of two terminal phosphate groups
  19. true or false – muscle cells can only store ATP in limited amounts and activity requires constant supply of ATP to provide the energy needed for muscle action
  20. what is ATP producing processes occur
    in the cell
  21. what are the three basic energy systems
    • the phosphagen system
    • glycolysis
    • the oxidative system
  22. anaerobic
    processes do not require the presence of oxygen
  23. aerobic
    mechanisms depend on oxygen
  24. what are the two systems that are anaerobic and occur in the sarcoplasm
    • the phosphagen system
    • glycolysis
  25. what are the systems that are aerobic
    the oxidative systems
  26. what are the three oxidative systems
    • Krebs cycle
    • electron transport
    • and the rest of the oxidative system are aerobic mechanisms that occur in the mitochondria of the muscle cells and require oxygen as a terminal electron receptor
  27. of the three macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats; which can be metabolized without any oxygen
  28. true or false – all three energy systems are active at any given time
    true – however the magnitude of the contribution of each system to overall work performance is primarily dependent on the intensity of activity and secondarily on the duration
  29. Phosphagen system – what kind of energy does this system provide
    short-term, high intensity activities – resistance and sprinting
  30. true or false – the phosphagen system is active at the start of all exercise regardless of intensity
  31. The phosphagen system requires another high energy molecule, what is that molecule
    creatine phosphate – a.k.a.phosphocreatine
  32. what is the enzyme that is active during the phosphagen system
    Creatine Kinase – is the enzyme that catalyzes the the synthesis of ATP from CP and ADP
  33. what is the general chemical formula for phosphagen system
    ADP + CP < Creatine Kinase> ATP + Creatine

    Creatine phosphate supplies a phosphate group that combines with ADP to replenish ATP. The creatine kinase reaction provides energy at a high rate; however, because CP is stored in relatively small amounts, the phosphagen system cannot be the primary supplier of energy for continuous, long-duration activities.
  34. how much ATP is stored in the body at any given time
    • 80 – 100 g
    • which does not represent a significant energy reserve for exercise
  35. true or false – ATP stores can be completely depleted
    false – due to the necessity for basic cellular function
  36. under normal conditions how much creatine phosphate is there in the body
    4 to 6 times higher than ATP concentrations
  37. what muscle fiber type contains higher concentrations of CP ( creatine phosphate)
    type II muscle fibers – fast twitch
  38. What is adenylate kinase

    What is the formula
    an enzyme that is important for glycolysis

    • 2ADP < Adenylate Kinase> ATP + AMP
    • this reaction is particularly important because AMP, a product of the Adenylate kinase reaction, is a powerful stimulant for glycolysis
  39. what is the law of mass action
    the law of mass action states that the concentration of reactants or were products in solution will drive the direction of reactions.
  40. explain how the phosphagen system regulated
    as ATP is hydrolyzed to yield the energy necessary for exercise, there is a transient increase of ADP concentrations in the sarcolema. this will increase the rate of creatine kinase and adenylate reaction. to replenish the ATP supply.. The process will continue until exercise ceases or the intensity is low enough not to deplete CP stores and allow glycolysis or the oxidative system to supply ATP and rephosphorylate the free creatine .
  41. what is glycolysis
    the breakdown of carbohydrates either glycogen stores in the muscle or glucose delivered in the blood – to re-synthesize ATP
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chapter #2 – bioenergetics of exercise and training
2011-05-10 18:41:30

bioenergetics of exercise and training
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