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  1. What is the first stage about?
    The first stage of the methodology requests to enter the problem situation. By that, it implies that we acknowledge that there is a problem.
  2. What is the second stage about?
    The second stage is about defining andexpressing the problem situation. To do so, a deep comprehension of overallcircumstances is required, which is largely gained with a rich picture. It presentsthe ideas in a schematized way and provides an overview of the system. Thus ithelps to better understand the complexity of the entire situation and identifythe issues.
  3. What is the third stage about?
    • The third stage necessitates specifying the root definition. It is a structured and concise description of a system. Every perspectives, factors and actors need to be taken into account. For this
    • reason, Peter Checkland provides the mnemonic CATWOE as a checklist for ensuring that all components involved are identified. The mnemonic stands for:

    · Customers, who are the beneficiaires of the system’s activities

    · Actors, who are people that cause the systems activities

    · Transformation process, which might be expressed as the input and output of the system

    · Weltanschauung (or world view), which is the belief of the world implicit in the root definition, that gives coherence to this human activity system and make it meaningful

    · Owners, who are people who have the power to modify the system.

    · Enviromental constraints, which are limitations on the system imposed by its enviroment, or a wider system that are taken as given in the root definition
  4. What is the fourth stage about?
    The fourth stage involves going over the root definitions and establishing,accordingly, a Conceptual Model of human activity systems. It is presented inthe form of diagrams and is a way of expressing how the whole process should beachieved. Also we could verify what we call ‘the 3’s’ (efficacy, efficiency andeffectiveness), which are essential aspects to consider.
  5. What is the fifth stage about?
    After building conceptual model, it is imperative to compare it to real life situation. The ensuing step, stage 5, requires cautious analysis of both situations and identifying differences, so that refinements could be applied in order to have a more realistic prototype.
  6. What is the sixth stage about?
    The sixth stage is about identifying feasibleand desirable changes. To do so, various suggestions are taken into account and more importantly, weighed. Does this solution fit the culture? Is it technically an improvement? These are the kinds of questions that need to be answered to determine if a solution is suitable in terms of feasibility and desirability.
  7. What is the seventh stage about?
    Finally, the seventh and ultimate stage requirestaking the measures to improve the problem situation. In other words, the purpose of this stage is to put in practice solutions put forward in the sixth stage.
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