Chapter 1 vocabulary part 1

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Chapter 1 vocabulary part 1
2011-05-12 13:47:51
ACE essentials exercise science

Vocab for chapter 1 - Human Anatomy
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  1. anatomical postition
    Standing erect with the feet and palms facing forward.
  2. connective tissue
    The tissue that binds together and supports various structures of the body. Ligaments and tendons are connective tissue
  3. epithelial tissue
    tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts, and vessels
  4. digestion
    the process of breaking down food into small enough units for absorption
  5. absorption
    the uptake of nutrients across a tissue or membrane by the gastrointestinal tract
  6. esophagus
    the food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach
  7. arteries
    a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to vital organs and extremities.
  8. capillaries
    the smallest blood vessels that supply blood to the tissues, and the site of all gas and nutrient exchange in the cardiovascular system. They connect the arterial and venous systems
  9. veins
    blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart from vital organs and the extremities
  10. plasma
    the liquid portion of the blood
  11. hormones
    a chemical substance produced and released by an endocrine gland and transported through the blood to a target organ
  12. carbohydrates
    the body's preferred energy source. Dietary sources include sugars (simple) and grains, rice, potatoes, and beans (complex). Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver and is transported in the blood as glucose
  13. amino acids
    nitrogen-containing compounds that are the building blocks of protein
  14. lipids
    the name for fats used in the body and bloodstream
  15. ions
    a single atom or small molecule containing a net positive or negative charge due to an excess of either protons (positive) or electrons (negative)
  16. platelets
    one of the disc-shaped components of the blood; involved in clotting.
  17. arterioles
    small-diameter blood vessels that extend and branch our from an artery and lead to capillaries; the primary site of vascular resistance.
  18. venules
    smaller divisions of veins
  19. aorta
    the major artery of the cardiovascular system; arises from the left ventricle of the heart
  20. arteriosclerosis
    a chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired blood circulation; develops with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions
  21. interstitial fluid
    fluid between the cells or body parts
  22. ventricles
    the two lower chambers of the hear (right and left ventricles)
  23. atria
    the two upper chambers of the heart (left and right atrium)
  24. pulmonary circuit
    the circulatory vessels of the lungs; involved in the circulation of blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart
  25. Systemic circuit
    The circulatory vessels of the body
  26. Cardiac cycle
    The period from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next heartbeat; the systolic and diastolic phases and the interval in between
  27. Systole
    The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
  28. Diastole
    The period of filling of the heart between contractions; resting phase of the heart
  29. Pharynx
    The muscular, membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the esophagus
  30. Larynx
    The organ of the voice; located between the trachea and the base of the tongue
  31. Trachea
    The cartilaginous and membranous tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi; windpipe
  32. Bronchi
    The two large branches of the trachea leading into the lungs.
  33. Alveoli
    Spherical extensions of the respiratory bronchioles and the primary sites of gas exchange with the blood.
  34. Bronchioles
    The smallest tubes that supply air to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.
  35. Mediastinum
    The portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs.
  36. Inspiriation
    The drawing of air into the lungs; inhalation
  37. Thorax
    The portion of the trunk above the diaphragm and below the neck.
  38. Expiration
    The act of expelling air from the lungs; exhalation
  39. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    A long hollow tube from mouth to anus where digestion and absorption occur
  40. Chemical digestion
    A form of digestion that involves the addition of enzymes that break down nutrients
  41. Lymphatic systems
    A network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries, and lymph vessels that produces and transports lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system.
  42. Anus
    The end point of the gastrointestinal tract though which semisolid waste is passed from the body
  43. epiglottis
    The cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it during the act of swallowing.
  44. Bolus
    A food and saliva digestive mix that is swallowed and them moved trough the digestive tract.
  45. Peristalsis
    The process by which muscles in the esophagus and intestines push food through the gastrointestinal tract in a wave-like motion.
  46. Cardiac sphincter
    Sits at the upper portion of the stomach; prevents food and stomach acid from splashing back into the esophagus from the stomach; also called the esophageal sphincter
  47. Chyme
    The semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum