Food & Nutrition Systems.txt

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Anonymous
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85115
Filename:
Food & Nutrition Systems.txt
Updated:
2011-05-10 22:02:04
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menu equipment sanitation safety purchasing inventory
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Food & Nutrition Systems
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  1. no choice/nonselective menu
    • cycle or single use
    • serve clientele unable/no desire to choose
  2. limited choice menu
    provide choice for some items
  3. choice/selective menu
    • static/fixed: same menu item everyday
    • OR
    • single use: use one day only, clientele don't vary day-day
    • OR
    • cycle/standing: repeat in sequence (3-4wk then repeat); simplify purchase/prep
  4. restaurant menu
    • table d'hote: total meal at set $
    • a la carte: separate items, separate $
    • du jour: of the day; use leftovers
  5. menu mix
    • represents popularity; categorized as low vs. high
    • compared to contribution margin
  6. contribution margin
    • represents profitability of item; categorized as high/low
    • compared to menu mix
  7. menu engineering: menu mix vs. contribution margin
    • DOG: low profit, low popularity
    • PLOWHORSE: low profit, high popularity
    • PUZZLE: high profit, low popularity
    • STAR: high profit, high popularity
  8. popularity index
    • analyze/predict item sales; determines each item's popularity in relation to other items
    • can be used to predict future sales of item
  9. benchmarking
    compare satisfaction level of other facilities which are considered "best"
  10. procurement
    acquiring material for production
  11. informal open market purchasing
    buyer requests quotes on specific items for specific quantity/quality from 1+ supply sources
  12. formal competitive bid buying (purchasing)
    compare price (bid) offered by suppliers & place order with lowest bid
  13. future contracts (purchasing)
    purchase at specific price; shipped later
  14. prime vending (purchasing)
    use single vendor for majority of purchases
  15. centralized purchasing
    • personnel in one office does purchasing for all units
    • cost-effective/time-saving
  16. group/co-op purchasing
    • separate units (not related to single mgmt) come together for joint purchasing
    • economic advantage (discounts)
  17. just-in-time purchasing
    purchase products as needed; immediate consumption by customer
  18. purchase order/recquisition
    written record of items/quantities ordered
  19. standing order
    eliminate need to call in daily/weekly orders
  20. FOB (free-on-board)
    products delivered with all transport charges paid
  21. technical spec
    indicate quality by objective/impartial test results (graded items)
  22. approved brand spec
    indicate quality by brand name/label
  23. performance spec
    indicate quality by functional characteristics (i.e. pH)
  24. food broker
    connects buyer with seller; does not own products
  25. economic order quantity
    represents most economic sized order to place (minimizes purchasing/inventory costs)
  26. time series (forecasting)
    • short term forecast
    • moving avg; uniform wt of past observation
  27. exponential smoothing (forecasting)
    • more recent value given more wt
    • past observation NOT uniformly weighed
  28. casual model (forecasting)
    • med/long term forecast
    • assumption that relationship exist btw item forecast & other factors (selling $, #customers)
  29. subjective model
    • used when relevant data scarce/when data relationships don't persist
    • use Delphi technique
  30. invoice
    delivery slip that accompanies order when receiving
  31. blind check receiving method
    • clerk gets blind invoice- lists items but omit quantites, weights, prices
    • forces clerk to make thorough check of inventory
  32. daily receiving report
    lists items received, date, #units, price, supplier, PO #
  33. substitution invoice
    used when order arrives w/o invoice
  34. request for credit
    list discprepancies such as shortages
  35. dry storage
    • requirements:
    • T: 50-70F
    • 6" above floor
    • 50-60% humidity (85-90% for fruit/veg)
  36. perpetual inventory
    • running record of balance on hand
    • updated each time item placed in/removed
  37. physical inventory
    • actual count of all goods on hand
    • counted as asset on balance sheet
  38. fixed order quantity (inventory)
    determines order point for each item in inventory
  39. par stock method (inventory)
    bring stock up to par level each time order is placed (regardless of amount on hand)
  40. mini-max stock (inventory)
    • order good when set min reached & only in amount needed to reach set max.
    • quantity of item is SAME at each order
  41. ABC inventory
    • A (vital item) to C (trivial item)
    • tight control for A items (often proteins)
  42. purchase price (method to assess inventory value)
    sum of actual purchase price of products in inventory
  43. weighted avg purchase price (method to assess inventory value)
    avg price paid for products over time
  44. FIFO (method to assess inventory value)
    • based on last $ paid
    • prices inventory high
  45. LIFO (method to assess inventory value)
    • uses oldest price paid for item in inventory
    • underestimates value of inventory
    • used if paying taxes on inventory
  46. central ingredient room
    • quality control measure; assures storage/ production/ inventory control
    • saves food costs
  47. dispersion system
    • mix of various substances in s/l/g
    • continuous phase: medium surrounding all parts of dispersed phase
    • dispersed phase: distributed throughout colloidal system
  48. pheophytin
    brown/olive pigment when ACID + green veg
  49. chlorophyllin
    bright green pigment when ALKALINE + green veg
  50. cream of tartar
    • acid used in cake
    • prevents Maillard browning
    • adds volume, tender crumb
  51. Maillard reaction (nonenzymatic browning)
    • reducing sugar (all simple EXCEPT sucrose) + aa
    • get ^browning with ^T, ^pH (alkaline), decreased water
  52. conduction cooking
    heat moves from one particle to another via contact
  53. convection cooking
    transfer of heat via circulation of currents of hot air
  54. induction cooking
    • electrical magnetic fields to excite molecules of metal cooking surfaces
    • NO open flame, burner NOT hot
  55. radiation cooking
    • infrared waves
    • ex: microwave: affects only water molecules (if waterless, item will not get hot)
  56. molds
    • don't usually prod harmful substances
    • boil to destroy
  57. yeasts
    • need water, energy, acid, oxygen
    • boil to destroy
  58. bacteria
    • need moisture, neutral pH, 68-113F
    • destroyed by pasteurization (145 for 30min)
  59. danger zone
    41-135F
  60. calcium compounds
    added to canning as humectant, ^firmness/tenderness
  61. irradiation
    • cold sterilization
    • irradiate meat frozen to preent off-flavors
  62. scoop size
    • scoop# / 32 (oz per quart)
    • scoop 60= use for garnish
  63. penetrometer
    assess tenderness/firmness of food
  64. viscosimeter
    assess consistency of food
  65. line-spread test
    assess viscosity of food
  66. specific-gravity test
    assess lightness of products; ratio of food density to water
  67. conventional production
    • all prep done on premises where meals served
    • foods prepared/served same day
  68. centralized delivery (conventional system)
    trays set up in central serving area under common supervision (tray line)
  69. decentralized delivery (conventional system)
    bulk food delivered-> tray set up in serving area
  70. automated cart system delivery (conventional system)
    built-in corridors for delivery; need to decide to use this system in planning stage
  71. commissary (satellite) production
    • centralized production/procurement
    • food production and service are separate facilities
    • items prepped in bulk & delivered to service unit
    • adv: economic, large volume purchasing
    • disadv: delivery/safety issues, 9 CCPs
  72. ready-prepared (cook-chill/freeze) production
    • foods prepared on site then frozen for later use
    • bring chilled bulk food down to 37F in <90min via rethermalization (microwave, convection oven, integral heat system, immersion technique)
    • adv: liberal production schedule, decreased employee stress
    • disadv: ^cost for equipment/space
  73. assembly-serve (total convenience) production
    • completely prepared food finished by thawing on premises
    • adv: less labor time, equipment/space
    • disadv: limited menu, low quality/ acceptability
  74. ideal temp range for pathogen growth
    70-125F
  75. reheat time/temp
    165 for 15 sec within 2 hours
  76. cooling leftovers
    • (1) 135 to 70 within 2 hours
    • (2) Then, 70 to 41 within 4 hours
    • total= 6hr rapid cooling time
  77. imitation food product
    nutritionally inferior, cost less, taste same
  78. substitute food product
    nutritionally equal/superior in some ways & inferior in others
  79. low calorie
    <40 kcal/serving
  80. low fat
    < 3g fat/serving
  81. low sodium
    < 140mg/serving
  82. fires: class A,B,C
    • A- ordinary combustible material
    • B- flammable liq/gas/grease (most common in FS)
    • C- live electrical fire
  83. chemical/cleaning solutions
    • chlorine, iodine, quats
    • immerse >60 sec using water >75F
  84. walls
    glazed tile, 5'8" high
  85. ceilings
    14-18 feet high
  86. floors
    clay tile, quarry tile, unglazed clay ar best for kitchen/heavy traffic
  87. ventilation
    68F to eliminate odor/moisture
  88. gauge
    • measures wt of equipment
    • lower gauge = strong metal
  89. finish/luster of metal
    ^# = ^luster
  90. 3-compartment sink
    • wash (110-120F)
    • rinse warm water
    • sanitize (170F >30sec or chem sol'n)
    • air dry
  91. mechanical dishwasher stages
    • pre-rinse (110-140F)
    • wash (140-160F)
    • rinse (170-180F = sanitizes via booster heater)
    • air dry
    • low T leads to greasy dishes
    • add drying agent to prevent water spots
  92. deck oven
    used when production high, space limited
  93. convection oven
    even heat, ^quantity, energy efficient
  94. rotary oven
    used for large volume baking
  95. tilting skillet
    can be oven, fry pan, braising pan, kettle, steamer, food warmer
  96. high pressure steamer
    quick cooking, facilitates batch cooking
  97. steam-jacketed kettle
    • circulation of steam (food does not touch steam)
    • uses conduction and radiation
    • VERY energy efficient
    • types: deep, shallow, trunion, tilting
  98. depreciation
    • shows costs associated with acquisition/installation of asset allocated over estimated useful life of the asset
    • straght line depreciation = annual

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