earth history final

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earth history final
2011-05-10 22:23:48
earth history esci

earth history, esci 02
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  1. types of fish
    • agnathic- jawless fish - lampreys
    • cartilagenous- sharks and rays
    • armored fish - extinct
    • bony fish - ray finned fish (most common trout etc)
    • lobe-finned fish- muscled fins
    • lungfish- primitive lungs to breathe in shallow water
  2. Ichthyostega-primitive amphibian- similarities with fish
    -skull structure, folded enamel teeth, homoologous limbs and fins
  3. Terrestrial adaptations
    • -well buttressed limbs
    • -interlocking vertebrae
    • -amphibians developed 3 chambered heart, oxygenation from lungs
    • -better sight + hearing
  4. Amniotic egg
    • -evolutionary breakthrough
    • -self contained nutrients and waste system
    • -hard shell protects yet allows for gas exchange
  5. Skull types
    • Anapsids - no extra holes (turtles)
    • Synapsids - low on skull (mammals)
    • Euryapsids - high on skull (marine reptiles)
    • Diapsids - 2 extra holes (crocs, snakes, dinos, birds)
  6. 2 types of dinosaurs
    • ornithischians- bird hipped - triceratops, stegosaurus, hadrosaur
    • saurischians - lizard hipped - birds evolved from them
    • (feathers for thermo regulation)
  7. 2 types of dinosaurs that evolved from Saurischians
    • Theropods - bipedal carnivores
    • Sauropods - huge, four legged herbivores
  8. ectotherms
    rely on external temperatures to regulater their body heat
  9. endotherms
    create own body heat from fuel
  10. poikilotherms
    variable body temps (hibernating mammals)
  11. homeotherms
    constant body temperature (internal metabolism regulates temp)
  12. Evidence for dinosaur endothermy
    • -relationship to birds
    • -Haversian canal present in mammals found in dinos
    • -Upright posture- bipedal locomotion
    • -found in high latitude ranges
    • -require los of fuel (made up 2% of fauna, lots of prey available)
  13. Evidence for meteor impact causinf extinction at the K/T boundary
    • -abrupt lithological change
    • -impact site in Yucatan, Mexico
    • -high levels of iridium (solar element)
    • -shocked quartz from impact
    • -andesitic rock 65 m. yrs partially melts, droplet in air- microtites
  14. Alternative theories for extinction
    • Vulcanism from Deccan Traps in India
    • Combination of vulvanism and sea level fall