Chem1ACh11

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victimsofadown
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85128
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Chem1ACh11
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2011-05-10 21:56:00
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Chem1ACh11
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Chem1ACh11
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  1. Coulombs Law
    • E = (constant) x q1q2/r
    • q = charge of ions
    • r = size of atom
  2. Molecule interactions in order of strength (strongest to weakest)
    • ion-ion
    • ion-dipole
    • H-bonding
    • dipole-dipole
    • dispersion
  3. Surface tension of a liquid
    • E required to increase surface tension by a unit
    • increased temperature = decreased surface tension
  4. Capillary action
    • Liquid will rise into a small tube / form meniscus
    • cohesive forces: liquid attracts to itself
    • adhesive forces: liquid adheres to non liquid
    • mercury has very little adhesive force, resulting in a convex meniscus
  5. Vaporization Energy
    • ΔHvap
    • Amount of energy required to separate a molecule from the liquid (boil)
    • ΔHvap increase = stronger intermolecular forces
    • Larger surface area = faster rate of evaporation
  6. Vapor pressure
    • Pressure in a closed container from molecules that have vaprorized from liquid within (they can't escape, so they create pressure)
    • Higher vapor pressure = weaker intermolecular forces (more easily vaporized = more molecules in air = more vapor pressure)
  7. Viscosity
    • Resistance of liquid to flow
    • 1 poise = 1P = 1g/cm x seconds
    • H2O is 1 cP at room temperature
    • Larger viscosity = larger intermolecular forces
    • more spherical molecular shape = decreased viscosity (less surface to surface contact)
    • increased temperature = decreased viscosity (increase to average kinetic energy, easier to overcome flow)
  8. Phase diagrams
    • Regions represent states, lines represent state changes
    • Critical point: the furthest point on a vapor pressure curve
    • Triple point: temperature/pressure where all 3 states exist simulatenously
    • Normal BP, FP, etc = pressure @ 1 atm.
  9. Supercritical fluid
    • Substances past the critical point on a phase diagram
    • State that has some liquid properties and some gas properties
    • Made from sealed liquid being heated, increased pressure, increased vapor density, decreased liquid density... essentially they all merge.
  10. Henry's Law
    • Sgas=KHPgas
    • S = solubility, KH = Henry's Law constant (different for each gas), P = pressure
    • As pressure increases, gas solubility increases
    • As pressure decreases, gas solubility decreases
  11. Temperature effects on liq/liq solubility and liq/gas solubility
    • Two liquids: temp increase = solubility increase, temp decrease = solubility decrease
    • Gas in liquid: temp increase = solubility decrease, temp decrease = solubility increase
  12. Vapor pressure (solvent in sol vs pure solvent)
    • Vapor pressure of solvent in solution is LESS than vapor pressure of pure solvent
    • solute replaces some particles @ surface, reduce amount vaporization, decrease amount of vapor
  13. Raoult's Law
    • Psolvent in sol=Xsolvent x P0
    • P = pressure, X = mole fraction, P0 = pressure of pure solvent
    • Vapor pressure calculation
  14. Freezing Point Depression
    • ΔTf = m x Kf x i
    • m = molality, Kf = freezing point constant (
    • °C/m), i = van't hoff factor
    • F.p. sol lower than F.p. pure solvent
  15. Boiling point elevation
    • ΔTf = m x Kb x i
    • m = molality, Kb = boiling point constant (
    • °C/m), i = van't hoff factor
    • B.p. sol higher than B.p. pure solvent
  16. Osmotic pressure
    • Π = MRTi
    • M = molarity, R = .0821 atm L / mol K, T = temp in K, i = van't hoff factor
    • amount of pressure needed to prevent osmotic flow
  17. van't hoff factor
    • i
    • amount of dissociation that occurs in solution

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