Bio Sci Final

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Bio Sci Final
2011-05-10 22:52:07
Biological Science Final Bio Sci

Bio Sci Final Notecards
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  1. Ecology
    the study of the interactions of organisms with their environments
  2. Biosphere
    composed of living communities and nonliving physical and chemical factors
  3. Aquatic Biomes
    defined as fresh water and marine
  4. Terrestrial Biomes
    categorized by climate and plant life
  5. Ecologists study environmental interactions at the leves of the
    • organism
    • population
    • community
    • ecosystem
  6. Global Ecosystem
    • biosphere
    • sume of all the Earth's ecosystems
    • most complex level in ecology
  7. Biotic
    • living
    • includes all organisms
  8. Abiotic
    • nonliving
    • include atmospheric gases, energy, nutrients, and water
  9. Rachel Carson
    • one of the first to percieve the global dangers of pesticide abuse
    • concerns documented in Silent Spring in 1962
  10. Most important abiotic factors that determine the biosphere's structure and dynamics include:
    • solar energy
    • temperature
    • water
    • nutrients
    • other aquatic factors
    • other terrestrial factors
  11. Climate
    often determines the distribution of communities
  12. Global climate patterns determined by:
    input of solar energy and the planet's movement in space
  13. Earth's tilt causes the seasons
    23.5 Degrees
  14. Uneven Heating causes
    rain and winds
  15. Ocean currents
    • have a profound effect on regional climates by warming or cooling coastal areas
    • created by winds, planet rotation, unequal heating of surface waters, and location and shapes of continents
  16. Oceans cover 75% of the Earth's surface...
  17. Benthic Realm
    • ocean bottom
    • supports a variety of organisms based upon water depth and light penetration
  18. Pelagic Realm
    • open ocean
    • supports highly motile animals such as fish, squids, and marine animals
  19. Aphotic Zone
    • vast, dark region of the ocean
    • most extensive part of the biosphere
  20. Photic Zone
    • portion of the ocean which light penetrates
    • photosynthesis occurs here
  21. Intertidal Zone
    • flooded by high tides and left dry during low tides
    • wetland at the edge of an estuary or ocean, where water meets land
    • salt marshes, sand, rocky beaches, and tide pools
  22. Estuaries
    • productive areas where rivers meet the ocean
    • provide nursery areas for oysters, crabs, and many fishes
    • often bordered by extensive coastal wetlands
  23. Coral reefs are easily degrades by...
    • pollution
    • native and introduced predators
    • human souvenir hunters
  24. Freshwater Biomes
    • lakes
    • ponds
    • rivers
    • streams
    • wetlands
  25. How are biomes distinguished?
    predominant vegetation
  26. Tropical Forests
    • occur in the warm, moist belt along the equator
    • most diverse ecosystem on Earth
  27. Savanna
    drier, tropical areasl and some nontropical areas
  28. Desert
    • driest of all terrestrial biomes
    • characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall
  29. Desertification
    significant environmental problem
  30. Chaparral
    • shrubland with cool, rainy winters and dry, hot summers
    • vegetation is adapted to periodic fires
  31. Temperate Grasslands
    • found in interiors of the contients, where winters are cold
    • drought, fires, and grazing animals prevent trees from growing
  32. Temperate Broadleaf Forests
    grow where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees
  33. Northern Coniferous Forest/Taiga
    • largest terrestrial biome on Earth
    • characterized by long, cold winters and short, wet summers
  34. Artic Tundra
    • lies between taiga and permentantly frozen polar regions
    • extreme cold, wind, and permafrost (continously frozen soil)
  35. Population Ecology
    • changes in population size
    • factors that regulate populations over time
    • how and why populations change
  36. Population
    a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area
  37. Individuals in a population
    • rely on the same resources
    • influenced by the same environmental factors
    • are likely to interact and breed with one another (exchange of gene flow)
  38. Population dynamics is...
    the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors
  39. What is the cause of variation in population sizes?
    • A population increases through birth and immigration
    • Death and emigration out of an area decrease the population
  40. Population Density
    number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume
  41. Dispersion Pattern
    the way the individuals of a population are spaced within their area
  42. Dispersion Pattern
    • refers to the way individuals are spaced within their area
    • can be: clumped, uniform, or random
  43. Clumped Pattern
    individuals are grouped in patches
  44. Uniform Pattern
    individuals are equally spaced in the environment
  45. Random Pattern
    individuals in a population are spaced in an unpredictable way
  46. Life Tables
    track survivorship over the life span of individuals in a population
  47. Survivorship Curves
    plot the proportion of individuals alive at each age
  48. Type I
    • few offspring
    • low mortality until they get old
  49. Type II
    in the middle of I and III
  50. Type III
    • many small offspring
    • high mortality rates
  51. Exponential Growth Model
    • rate of population increases under ideal conditions (growth under ideal conditions)
    • G=rN
  52. Logistic Growth Model
    • takes into account limiting factors
    • limiting factors are environmental factors that restrict population growth - food availability, access to mates in population
    • Includes K - carrying capacity - the maximum population a particular environment can sustain
  54. Boom-and-bust cycles
    • food shortages
    • predator-prey interactions
  55. Maximum sustained yield
    Harvest should be done in a way that produces a consistent yield without forcing a population decline
  56. Age Structure diagram
    reveals a population's growth trends
  57. Ecological Footprint
    • helps understand resource avaliability and usage
    • US has big ecological footprint
  58. Conservation Biology
    • goal-oriented science
    • seeks to counter the Biodiversity crisis
    • can focus on one species or protect many species by preserving habitats and ecosystems
    • touches all levels of ecology from a single tiger to the forest where it roams
  59. Scientists are concerned about the ecological changes that underlie biodiversity loss
    Ecologists point out that the "services" provided by the biodiversity of ecosystems
  60. Biodiversity 3 levels
    • genetic diversity
    • species diversity
    • ecosystem diversity - directly related to biodiversity overall
  61. Endangered Species
    • in danger o fextinciton throughout all of a significant portion of its range
    • protected by thte Endangered Species Act
  62. Threatened Species
    • likely to become endangered in the forseeable future
    • not too much funding provided for threatened species
  63. Human Alternation of Habitats
    • poses the greatest threat to biodiversity
    • caused by: agriculture, urban development, forestry, mining, environmental pollution
  64. Invasive Species
    • rank behind habitat destruction as a threat to biodiversity
    • compete with native species
    • prey on native species
    • parasitize native species
  65. Overexploitation
    • third major threat to biodiversity
    • overhavesting threatened: rare trees, fish, and bison
  66. Biological Magnification
    • can be caused by pollutants in the food chain
    • concentration of pollutant increases as you go up the food chain
  67. Global Warming is most evident
    • in artic from:
    • shrinking sea ice
    • thinning ice sheets
    • melthing permafrost
  68. Phenotypic Pasticity
    • altering phenotype in response to environmental conditions
    • within the normal range of genetic expression
    • can involve genetic shifts that change a species
    • prevents extinction from some species
  69. Population Fragmentation
    • a harmful effect of habitat loss
    • splitting and isolation of portions of populations
    • can lead to extinctions
  70. Conservation Biology Priority
    • Past Efforts: saving individual species
    • Today: biodiversity of ecosystems
  71. Landscape Ecology
    dynamics of a collection of ecosystems
  72. Biodiversity Hot Spots
    • have large number of endangered and threatened species
    • have a concentration of endemic species
    • hot spot designation favors the most noticable organisms
  73. Zoned Reserve
    • extensive region of land with one or more areas undisturbed by humans
    • contribures to sustainable development
  74. Sustainable Development
    • long-term prosperity of human societies and the ecosystem
    • provide an economic base for people living there
  75. Restoration Ecology
    • uses ecological principles to restore environments
    • replanting native vegetation
    • repairing waterways and wetlands
    • bioremediation: using organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems