Chem3BLipids

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victimsofadown
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85146
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Chem3BLipids
Updated:
2011-05-10 23:48:10
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Chem3BLipids
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Chem3BLipids
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  1. How are lipids classified?
    By solubility (hydrophobic), not by functional groups
  2. Functions of lipids
    • Energy source (1g releases 9kcal)
    • Main energy reserve of living systems
    • Forms part of cell membrane
    • Regulate activity of cells and tissues (via hormones)
    • Vitamin absoprtion (A, D, E, K)
    • Insulation and protection - shock absorbers for organs (~4% total fat)
  3. Saponifiable vs not saponifiable lipids
    • Saponifiable: waxes, triacylglyceride, phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids
    • Not saponifiable: steroids, terpenes, prostaglandins
  4. Fatty acid (include the "must know" specific fatty acids)
    • Long chain (10+ C) carboxylic acid, even # of C
    • Lauric acid - 12 C - saturated - coconut
    • Myristic acid - 14 C - saturated - nutmeg
    • Palmitic acid - 16 C - saturated - palms, most abundant
    • Stearic acid - 18 C - saturated - animal fat
    • Oleic acid - 18 C - monounsaturated (between C9 and C10) - olives and corn
    • Linoleic acid - 18 C - polyunsaturated (between C9 and C10, C12 and C13) - soybeans, safflower, sunflowers - essential fatty acid (Omega 6)
    • Linolenic acid - 18 C - polyunsaturated (between C9 and C10, C12 and C13, C15 and C16) - corn - essential fatty acid (Omega 3)
  5. fats and oils
    • Saponifiable
    • fatty acid esters of glycerol
    • glycerol + ____fatty acids = ____glyceride
    • Fats contain only saturated fatty acids
    • Oils contain 1+ unsaturated fatty acids
    • Can undergo hydrogenation, hydrolysis, and saponification
  6. Waxes
    • Saponifiable
    • Long chain alcohol + long chain carboxylic acid (both even #)
    • Single ester only
    • feathers of animals, coats of animals, top of leaf
    • Protection from environment (hydrophobic)
  7. Phosphoglycerides
    • Saponifiable
    • glycerophospholipids
    • similar to triglycerides, but with 1 fatty acid replaced by the ester of phosphoric acid and amino alcohol
    • Bipolar (hydrophilic and hydrophobic)
    • Found in cell membrane (phospholipic bilayer)
  8. Sphingolipids
    • Saponifiable
    • Very similar to phosphoglyceride, but has a "sphingeosine group" in place of glycerol
    • Very polar, found in brain tissue, nerve endings
  9. Glycolipids
    • Saponifiable
    • Derivative of sphingolipid, with a sugar group
    • Gangliosides: small polysaccharide (rather than monosaccharide)
    • Tay Sachs caused by accumulation of a specific ganglioside in brain
  10. Terpenes
    • Nonsaponifiable
    • Semi-polymers (di, tri, tetramers) of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene)
    • All will have a multiple of 5 C
    • Most widely distributed lipid
    • Vitamins A, D, K, and E have structures related to terpenes
  11. Vitamins
    • A: obtained from cod liver oil and animal liver
    • D: promotes absorption of Ca2+, prevents rickets
    • K: blood clotting
    • E: found in wheat germ, thought to be related to fertility and is often called the sex vitamin or the vitamin of youth
  12. Steroids
    • Nonsaponifiable
    • Cholesterol contains OH (-ol), is a component of cell membranes - in bile salts, liver, makes vit D in skin
    • Bile acids (cholesterol derivatives) - emulsifying agent for fats + system fluid
    • Steroid hormones: testosterone, estradiol, progesterone
    • Synthetic steroids (birth control, morning-after pill, "steroids") mimic hormones structurally
    • RU-486 mimics progesterone (tells body its already preggo)
    • Adrenal Corticosteroids: aldosterone (Na+/K+ levels), coristol (glucose levels / immune supression)
    • Synthetic hormones - cortisone mimics cortisol
  13. Prostaglandins
    • Nonsaponifiable
    • Eicosanoids
    • Made from a 20 C fatty acid
    • created only when used, at the location of use, then excreted
    • Relieve inflammation, affect BP and HR, reproductive function control, relieve nasal congestion / asthma, regulate sleep/wake cycle

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