Biology Final

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  1. -the scientific study of life
  2. -substances that cannot be broken down into other substances
    -92 naturally occurring elements on Earth
  3. -occur in smaller amounts
    -are essential for life
    trace elements
  4. -a chemical compound that releases H+ to solution
    -0-7 on pH scale
  5. -a compound that accepts H+ and removes it from a solution
    -7-14 on pH scale
  6. -substances that resist change in pH
  7. -carbohydrates
    -nucleic acids
    -not lipids
  8. -links two monomers together
    -removes a molecule of water
    dehydration reaction
  9. -breaks bonds between monomers
    -adds a molecule of water
    -reverses the dehydration reaction
  10. -sugars or sugar polymers
    -include small sugar molecules in soft drinks
    -long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes
  11. -simple sugars that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugars
    -build carbs
  12. -a double sugar
    -constructed from two monosaccharides
    -formed by a dehydration reaction
  13. -complex carbohydrates
    -made of long chains of sugar units and polymers of monosaccharides
  14. -neither macromolecules nor polymers
    -Hydrophobic, unable to mix with water
  15. -a key component of cell membranes
    -the “base steroid” from which your body produces other steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone
  16. -polymers constructed form amino acid monomers
    -perform most of the tasks the body needs to function
    -form enzymes
  17. -chemicals that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the process
  18. -specific sequence of amino acids in a protein
    primary structure of proteins
  19. -pleated sheet/alpha and beta helix
    secondary structure of proteins
  20. -polypeptide
    Tertiary Structure of Proteins
  21. -protein with four polypeptides
    quaternary structure of proteins
  22. -a specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
  23. -bacteria and archaea
    prokaryotic cells
  24. -plants, fungi and animals
    -only cells that have organelles
    eukaryotic cells
  25. -tiny structures that build proteins
  26. -membrane-bound structures that perform specific functions
    -most important is the nucleus
  27. -fibers formed by long DNA molecules and associated proteins that are stored in the nucleus
  28. -each long chromatin fiber
  29. -organelles that perform photosynthesis
  30. -the sites of cellular respiration, which produce ATP from the energy of food molecules
  31. -the total of all chemical reactions in an organism
    -most reactions require assistance of enzymes
  32. -products of a reaction inhibit the enzyme required for its production
    -prevents the cell from wasting resources
    feedback regulation
  33. -has a higher concentration of solute
  34. -has a lower concentration of solute
  35. -requires oxygen
  36. -does not require the use of oxygen
  37. -can produce up to 38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule consumed
    cellular respiration
  38. glycolysis
    • -a 6C glucose molecule is split in half to form two 3C molecules, or 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
    • -produces a net of two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule
    • -does not require oxygen
  39. -the anaerobic harvest of food energy
    -relies on glycolysis to produce ATP
    -able to sustain many types of microorganisms
  40. -used by plants, some protists and some bacteria
    -transforms light energy into chemical energy
    -uses carbon dioxide and water as starting materials
    -the reactants are the waste products of cellular respiration
    -sunlight provides the energy
    -glucose and oxygen are produced
  41. -convert solar energy to chemical energy
    -two types of photosystems: water-splitting and NADPH-producing
    -located in the thylakoid membrane
    light reactions
  42. -uses the products of the light reactions to make sugar from carbon dioxide
    -functions like a sugar factory within the stroma of a chloroplast
    -regenerates the starting material with each turn
    calvin cycle
  43. -the orderly sequence of events that extend from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell to its own division into two cells
    cell cycle
  44. -most of a cell cycle is spent in this phase
    -doubles everything in its cytoplasm
    -grows in size
  45. -chromatin fibers coil
    -each chromosome has two identical sister chromatids
  46. -begins when sister chromatids separate
    -each chromosome daughter is now its own full fledged chromosome
  47. -mitotic spindle is now fully formed
    -chromosomes are in the middle of the cell
    -pulls chromosomes
  48. -happens during telophase
    -divides the cytoplasm
    -different in plant and animal cells
    telophase (cytokinesis)
  49. -where the nucleus and its contents divide evenly into two daughter nuclei
  50. -sexual reproduction
  51. -make up DNA and RNA
    -joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone
    -nitrogenous bases found in DNA: T, C, A, and G (in RNA, U instead of T)
  52. DNA backbone
    • -deoxyribose sugars
    • -phosphate groups
    • -nitrogenous bases
  53. -like a rope ladder twisted into a spiral
    -ropes at the sides represent the sugar-phosphate backbone
    -each rung represents a pair of bases connected by hydrogen bonds
    DNA strand
  54. -organism's genetic makeup
    -what is supposed to be there
  55. -organism’s physical traits
    -what can be seen of an organism
  56. -DNA to RNA
  57. -RNA into protein
    -the conversion from the nucleic acid language to the protein language
    -requires: mRNA, ATP, enzymes, ribosomes, tRNA
  58. -a nucleotide sequence with a “start transcribing” signal
  59. initiation of transcription
    • -first phase of transcription
    • -RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter
    • -RNA synthesis begins
  60. elongation of transcription
    • -second phase of transcription
    • -RNA grows longer
    • -RNA strand peels away from the DNA template
  61. termination of transcription
    • -third phase of transcription
    • -RNA polymerase reaches terminator
    • -polymerase detaches from the RNA
    • -the DNA strands rejoin
  62. -sequence of DNA bases with a "strop transcribing" signal
  63. -adding a 5 prime cap and poly A tail
    -removing introns
    -splicing exons together to form messenger RNA
    RNA processing
  64. -any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
    -can change the amino acids in a protein
  65. -are not cellular
    -cannot reproduce on their own
  66. -misfolded proteins
  67. -the study of the structure of an organism
  68. -the study of the function of an organism’s structural equipment
  69. -an integrated group of similar cells that perform a specific function
  70. -covers the surface of the body
    -lines organs and cavities within the body
    epithelial tissue
  71. -may be liquid, jellylike or solid
    connective tissue
  72. -the most widespread connective tissue
    -binds epithelia to underlying tissue
    -holds organs in place
    loose connective tissue
  73. -stores fat
    -stockpiles energy
    -pads and insulates the body
    adipose tissue
  74. -a connective tissue with a matrix of liquid
    -contains red and white blood cells suspended in plasma
  75. -has a dense matrix of collagen
    -forms tendons and ligaments
    fibrous connective tissue
  76. -has a strong rubbery matrix
    -functions as a flexible, boneless skeleton
    -forms the shock-absorbing pads that cushion the vertebrae of the spinal column
  77. -a rigid connective tissue
    -has a matrix of collagen fibers hardened with deposits of calcium salts
  78. -consists of bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells
    -has specialized proteins that contract when stimulated by a nerve
    muscle tissue
  79. -attached to bones by tissue
    -responsible for voluntary movements
    -striated because the contractile apparatus forms a banded pattern in each cell or fiber
    skeletal muscle
  80. -composed of cells that are branched and striated
    -found only in heart tissue
    -responsible for the contraction of the heart
    cardiac muscle
  81. -named for its lack of obvious striations
    -found in the walls of various organs
    smooth muscle
  82. -makes communication of sensory information possible
    -is found in the brain and spinal cord
    -consists of a network of neurons
    nervous tissue
  83. -consists of two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function
  84. -the body’s tendency to maintain relatively steady conditions in the internal environment when the external environment changes
  85. -most mechanisms of homeostasis depend on this common principle
    -results of a process inhibit the same process
    -like when a thermostat turns off a heater when room temperature rises to a set point
    negative feedback
  86. -the results of a process intensify that same process
    -uterine contractions during childbirth
    positive feedback
  87. -mainly feed on plants
  88. eat animals
  89. eat plants and animals
  90. -the breakdown of food to small nutrient molecules
  91. -the uptake of the small nutrient molecules by cells lining the digestive tract
  92. -begins the process of digestion
    -involves physical processes like chewing
    -begins in the mouth
    mechanical digestion
  93. -the chemical breakdown of food by digestive enzymes
    -begins in the mouth
    -most occurs in the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine
    chemical digestion
  94. -the longest part of the alimentary canal
    -the major organ for chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream
    small intestine
  95. -shorter, but wider, than the small intestine
    -about 1.5 meters in length
    -absorbs water
    large intestine
  96. -receives blood in the heart
  97. -part of the heart that pumps blood away from the heart
  98. -carry blood away from the heart
  99. -the site of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
  100. -return blood back to the heart
  101. blood path
    • Right atrium
    • Right ventricle
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Capillaries of lung
    • Pulmonary vein
    • Left atrium
    • Left ventricle
    • Aorta
    • Capillaries of head, chest and arms
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
  102. -sets the tempo of the heartbeat
    SA node
  103. -cells that carry oxygen
    red blood cells
  104. -cells that fight infection
    white blood cells
  105. -aid blood clotting
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Biology Final

Biology Final
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