According to Freud, what are the 3 parts of the personality and how do they interact?
The EGO works to mediate the demants of the ID and the SUPEREGO.
Piaget's theory of development: Who did he study?
His own Children
What are the types of research designs?
Longitudinal - studied repeatedly at different ages
Cross Secrional - groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
Correlation design - gathers information on existing groups of individuals in their natural life.
Differences between Fraternal and Identical twins. How are they different?
Two different eggs are fertilized by two different sperm
What do genetic counselors do?
They help potential parents asses their chances of having a baby with a hereditary disorder.
What enviromental context has the first and longest effect on development?
What is the concept of range of reaction referred to?
Children who are exposed to the same enviromental conditions may respond to them differently because of their genetic makeup.
What takes place in each of the prenatal developmental stages? How long does each last?
Zygote: 2 weeks. from fertilization until the cell mass drifts out of the fallopian tubes and attaches itself to the uterine wall. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLACENTA
Embryo: 2-8th week. Rapid prenatal changes. The Foundation of the body parts is layed down.
Fetus: 9th week- end - "growth and finishing"
What is a terratogen?
any enviromental agent that causes damage durring the prenatal period.
What does research show are the effects of alcohol on prenatal development?
The defects of FAE children vary as a function of the length and timing of their mothers drinking during pregnancy.
What does Folic Acid do?
Greatly reduces abnormalities to the neural tube, such as spina bifida and anecephaly.
What causes the cervix to dialate and efface?
What takes place in the 3 stages of labor?
Stage 1: Dialation oand Effacement of the cervix
Stage 2: Delivery of the baby
Stage 3: Birth of the placenta
What single factor is the best predictor of infant survival and health?
What types of reflexes do children have available when they come into the world? (Survival Reflexes)
Rooting - helps breast fed baby find the mothers nipple
Moro - spreads arms when head is let go or hears a loud noise.
What is Cephlacaudal Trend?
The head region develops before the foot region
What is the difference between a fine motor skill and a gross motor skill?
Fine Motor Skills involve controling small muscles. (grasping)
Gross Motor Skills - large muscles (wa;lomg, kicking, crawling)
What is shape and size constancy?
Size Constancy - the perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the retinal image.
Shape Constancy - the perception that an objects shape is stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina.
What is assimilation? Accomodation?
Assimilation - Children interpret experiences in terms of existing schemes.
Accomidation - old schemes are adjusted and new ones created to make sense of the enviroment.
What is Zone of Proximal Development?
A tas that a child cannot yet handle on their own, but can do with the help of an adult.
Comsky's Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
An innate mechanism that permits children to speak grammatically and comprehend sentences in any language to which they are exposed to.
What does a parent have to do to develop trust with a child? So they can develop trust in the world?
Basic Trust VS Mistrust the balance of care is sympathetic and loving.
What is Social referencing?
8-10th Month: When infants start to evaluate unfamiliar people , objects, and events in terms of their safety and security, relying on a trusted persons emotional reaction to decide how to respond in on uncertain situations.
What are delf conscious emotions?
Those that involve injury to or enhance of the sense of self. (Shame, embarrassment, huild, envy, and pride)
How did we define what Attachment is?
The strong affectionalte tie we feel toward special people in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted b their nearness durring times of stress.
How many inches and pounds during the early childhood years does a child grow?
2-3 inches in heaight and about 5 pounds in weight a year.
What is Synaptic Pruning?
An adaptive process in which neurons that are seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers and the number of synapes is reduced. Leading to a decline in brain plasticity.
What does the Pituitary Gland do?
Releases 2 hormones that induce growth.
Growth hormone and Thyroid-stimulating hormones.
What is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations?
Unintentional Injuries: Car accidents, drowning, poinsonings, firearm wounds, burns, falls, swalowing of foreign objects.
How would a child solve the three mountains problem? (durring preschool years)
egocentrism - the failure to distinguish the symbolic view points of others from ones own. As the mmost fundomental deficiency of preoperational thinking.
Best way to discuss death with their children?
Combine scientific facts along with religion and cultural belief. (Permanency, universality, non-functionality)
Characteristics of autism?
Deficient in the brains mechanism that enables people to detect mental states.
What does research show are the effects of watching Sesame Street?
The more time children spend watching Sesame Street, the higher score on tests measuring the programs academic goals.
What is Erikson's major developmental task of preschool children?
Initiative V.S. Guilt
Mildridge's 4 different types of play children engage in.
Nonsocial - solitary play
Parallel - Limited form of social participation
Associated - Separate activities/ exchange toys
Cooperative - Common goal/ acting out/ make believe theme.
how to preschoolers regard friendships?
Pleasurable play and sharing of toys.
What is a characteristics of families that are more likely to commit child abuse?
What is Secular Trend?
Changing in body size from one generation tto the next
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that permit neurons to communicate accross synapses
What's the best way to have an adult structured event? You want to make sure they:
participate for the fun of it, whether or not they become expert atheletes.
What characterizes child thinking during Piaget's concrete operational stage?
Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage is characterized by thought that is Logical and Flexible.
how does stimulation medication help children with ADHD?
The medication increases frontal lobe activity, improving capacity for sustained attention.
What does Mainstreaming mean?
Placing pupils with learning difficulties into regular classrooms.
Two different approaches to reading: Phonica and...
Whole language Approach
Phonics - Children should be first coached on phonics which are basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
How does George Herbert Describe "The Self"?
A blend of what important people in our lives think of us and said that a psycological self emerges when the childs I SELF adopts a view of the Me-Self that resembles others attotudes.
Attribution theory: What explanations do they have?
Attributions - Common, every day explanations for the causes of behavior - whether it is attributed to luck, ability, or effort.
Mastery-oriented attributions - credit successes to high and failure to insufficient effort - factors that can be changed and controlled.
Learned Helplessness - credit success to external factors, such as luck, and attribute their failures to low ability.
How did Piaget and Vikosky differ when they talked about private of egocentric speech?
Piaget: his belief: that children talk out loud to themselves because the have difficulties taking the perspective of others.