Social Psychology

Card Set Information

Social Psychology
2011-05-11 08:21:10
social psychology

Social Psychology Semester 2 Exam
Show Answers:

  1. Social psychology lies at psychology's boundary with _______?
  2. In the Dartmouth versus Princeton study discussed in the text, each group saw a greater number of violations in their school's football game than the other group reported. This supports the idea that there is an objective reality, BUT it is shaped by _____________?
    Individual Values
  3. Social psychology has been charged with being both _______________ and _______________.
    Trivial and Dangerous
  4. Testable predictions are called _______?
  5. A theory is discarded when ________?
    a better theory replaces it
  6. Researchers hypothesize that people who drive SUVs are bullies. They set up a hidden camera by a four-point stop sign and observe what kind of car/driver is more likely to stop fully and/or not yield to the other driver's right-of-way. What kind of study is this?
    Naturalistic Observation
  7. To show causality, researchers must use a(n) ______________ design.
  8. Every social-psychological experiment has two essential ingredients: control and _________?
    Random assignment
  9. Whether you dream about becoming rich, thin, successful, loved, or famous, or you fear becoming a failure, you are imagining your _________?
    Possible Selves
  10. The most researched topic in psychology today is ______?
    the Self
  11. Minority groups often define themselves by paying attention to ________ between themselves and the majority group.
  12. When you walk into a restaurant and everyone in the room looks—well, homely, if not ugly—you feel better about yourself and attractive. This is due
    to _________?
    Self-reference Effect
  13. You left high school with a 3.8 GPA and have always believed you were "much smarter than the average bear." Now you are in a college where everyone had a 3.8 GPA in high school and great SAT scores. Suddenly you are struggling to keep up with the pack and feel less and less intelligent as the semesters go by. This is due to ______?
    Social Comparison Effect
  14. British, Americans, and Australians are _____ likely than Asians to complete "I am" statements with their group identities?
  15. Joe gets caught stealing candy from Wal-Mart. He rationalizes that most people steal every once in a while. Joe's inclination to overestimate the commonality of his criminal behavior illustrates __________?
    the False Consensus Effect
  16. You are taking chemistry next semester, and you feel you will fail. After the first three quizzes, however, you are getting an A in the class. Chances are, by the end of the semester, your sense of ____ will increase.
  17. The extent to which people believe either internal or external events determine outcomes is called ______?
    Locus of Control
  18. People in Florida know that hurricanes happen often during the hurricane season. For this reason, at the beginning of the hurricane season they buy supplies to make sure they can protect their property and families. This planning and preparedness illustrates _________ locus of control?
  19. "Sometimes I feel like I don't have control over the direction my life is taking." This statement is most likely to be made by someone with ______ locus of control?
  20. Often an external locus of control can lead to ______?
    Self-serving bias
  21. Oftentimes individuals who are hard on their luck and on welfare seem to "give up," feeling like there is nothing they can do. This illustrates __________?
    Learned Helplessness
  22. Anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action is termed _______?
    Defensive pessimism
  23. People who act like "social chameleons"—those who seem to change behavior and attitudes to fit every situation they're in are generally considered high ______?
    self monitors
  24. According to Mark Leary, _______________ is an evolved psychological gauge by which we monitor and react to how others appraise us?
  25. Abbey has found that males are likely to attribute a woman's friendliness to an expression of sexual interest. Women report this is a(n) _______?
  26. Having participants explain why an opposite belief might be true after instilling a specific belief may reduce or eliminate ______?
    Belief perseverence
  27. Your friend just took a new job. She meets you for drinks after her first week on the job and complains about her boss. This surprises you because you've never heard her complain about a boss before, and she rarely complains in general. Kelley argues that this information helps us explain her behavior because her behavior toward her boss is ________?
  28. A student is told to give a speech in favor of the death penalty. After the speech, the class is informed that the speaker was told to present only that side (in favor) of the issue. Even so, the class overwhelmingly believes that the speaker believes in the death penalty. This illustrates _______?
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  29. Forcing people to consider disconfirming evidence has been found to successfuly reduce the ________?
    Overconfidence bias
  30. Bronze medalists exhibit more joy than silver medalists. This is an example of ________?
    Counterfactual thinking
  31. Researchers have found that people remember their past relationships and experiences far more favorably after time passes than they felt while the experience was occurring. This is due to _______?
    rosy retrospection
  32. If I told you that you were going to meet someone "warm," the odds are you would enjoy your contact with them. Conversely, if I introduced you to someone I described as "cold," you'd most likely not want to talk to them. This illustrates ______?
  33. If on day one you had written down the grade you expected to receive on your first exam in this class, you, and most of your classmates, would most likely write down an A. This is due to _______?
  34. A thinking strategy that enables quick efficient judgments is a ______?
  35. The tendency to believe that someone belongs to a specific group if they look like a typical member of that group is the _______?
    Representative Heuristic
  36. If you see a man driving down the street in a VW bug with a surfboard out the back of his car, you are likely to think he is a surfer. This is because of the ______?
    Representative Heuristic
  37. Use of heuristics may lead to the ______?
    Confirmation Bias
  38. After the Columbine shootings, people were more likely to overestimate the amount of teen violence and to fear school violence. This is because of the ________?
    Availability Heuristic
  39. After the movie Jaws came out, and again in the early 1990s after Summer of the Shark, many people were afraid to go in the ocean. This is due to the _______?
    Availability Heuristic
  40. "It always rains after I wash the car." This statement is an example of an ______?
    Illusory Correlation
  41. You believe that Friday the 13th is bad luck. Sure enough, every Friday the 13th bad things happen to you. Why might this be?
    Self-fulfilling prophecy
  42. Actions expected of those who occupy a particular social position are called _____?
  43. When our behavior is out of sync with our attitudes, it is called ______?
    Cognitive Dissonance
  44. Bem argues we look to our behavior to find out what our attitudes are. He calls this _____?
    Self-perception Theory
  45. When offered an unnecessary reward in an attempt to control behavior, the _______________effect occurs?
  46. Whose theory involves the idea of arousal as central to dissonance?
  47. Threaten a person's self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate by doing something good in another domain. This describes the ________ theory?
  48. Dissonance theory explains attitude _______?
  49. Self-perception theory explains attitude _______?
  50. Self-presentation theory argues that people will adopt attitudes consistent with behaviors in order to create ________?
    good impressions
  51. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a method used to ________ the role of social linfluences on participants' attitude reports?
  52. Which theory of behavior affects attitudes and gives rise to the overjustification effect?
    Self-perception Theory
  53. Your neighborhood Honda dealership announces a one-day sale of 2006 Honda Accord for the outstanding price of $16,999. Once you arrive, the salesman informs you that if you want wipers, floor mats, a radio, air conditioning, heat, and a passenger side mirror, the car will cost $19,900. You consent to buy the car at $19,900 even though you had hoped to buy it for $16,999. The salesman employed ________?
    Low Ball Technique
  54. Your friend asks you if you'd be willing to run quickly to the grocery store with her. You agree. However, once in the car, she asks if you'd mind running three other errands with her. Begrudgingly you say yes. She has used which of the following techniques?
    Foot-in-the-door technique
  55. A politician who publicly favors a tax increase that he privately doesn't support will most likely experience _______?
    Cognitive Dissonance
  56. A student states that he supports gun ownership by individuals. In speech class, his teacher assigns him to present a persuasive speech on abolishing gun ownership by individuals. After arguing the opposing side, he finds his initially favorable attitude is changing. This can best be explained by _______?
    Cognitive dissonance theory
  57. Which theory of why behavior affects attitudes assumes that we look to our behavior to discover our attitudes?
    Self-perception Theory
  58. The adaptive change in frequency of specific genes over generations is _______?
    Natural selection
  59. The power of the situation is also called _______?
    Social control
  60. You go out to dinner with three of your good friends. Friends 1 and 2 order dessert. Next, Friend 3 orders dessert. When the waiter gets to you, even though you are dieting, you order dessert. Why?
  61. When you have complied with a request and have internalized a belief that your behavior is justified, you are showing ________?
    Private acceptance
  62. After Marilyn Monroe's suicide, there were 200 more suicides in the United States than was typical. This was due to the suspected effects of ________?
    Mass suggestibility
  63. The "teacher/learner" paradigm, which has been extensively used by researchers to investigate a variety of phenomena, was used by ______?
    Milgram - obedience studies
  64. One salient factor in Milgram's study on obedience was the experimenter. When the experiment was varied so that the experimenter gave orders over
    the phone, obedience was _______?
    greatly reduced
  65. Milgram found that _____ status people accept commands more readily?
  66. Having an ally tends to tends to _______ the degree of conformity found in Solomon Asch-type experiments?
  67. When a person conforms to gain acceptance, we say they are bowing to _______?
    Normative influence
  68. Groups often reject people who consistently deviate from social roles. These people appear to be unaffected by ________?
    Normative influence
  69. The desire to be correct involves _______ influence
  70. Concern for social image involves ________ influence
  71. Personality is a good predictor of behavior when social influences are _____?
  72. Cross-cultural replications of obedience studies have found the highest rate of obedience in ______
  73. If your parents tell you that you can't drink until you are 21, you may well go out drinking before then. Psychologists refer to this as _______
  74. An increased desire for forbidden activities is often the result of _______
  75. People from ________ cultures are most likely to conform to those around them.
  76. Persuasion is the process by which a message _______
    induces change in behaviour
  77. When people are presented with information and they are naturally analytical or the information is highly involving, they are likely to be persuaded
    via the _______ route to persuasion.
  78. When people are not engaged with the information or they tend to make snap judgments, they are more likely persuaded via the __________ route.
  79. Central route persuasion is ______ likely to produce change?
  80. Perceived expertise and trustworthiness is ______
  81. When someone speaks confidently and quickly, we assume they are ________
  82. You are going to meet someone who is intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious. Because I first described him as intelligent, you're more likely to feel favorably toward him than you would if I had started by saying he was envious. This is due to a ______
    primacy effect
  83. One criticism of the studies on why people join cults is that those studies are subject to _______
    the hindsight bias
  84. Dr. Kuhle has been invited to interview. The hiring committee will interview the five candidates over a five week period, after which they will immediately decide who to hire. When is best for him to interview?
  85. Analytical people who enjoying thinking carefully, show a high need for ______?
  86. Familiarity breeds _______
  87. Hatfield et al., (1966) found that the best predictor of whether students wanted a second date with someone they were randomly set-up with for dance was their date's ___________
    physical attractiveness
  88. Roughly what percent of infants display a secure attachment?
  89. Other things being equal, we assume that beautiful people are more ________ than are less attractive people.
  90. You are speaking with one of your coworkers—praising them for having done a great job on a recent project. You then ask if they can help with one of your projects that is due tomorrow. This strategy is called ________
  91. The theory that we like people who reward us or with whom we associate positive events is the ________ theory of attraction?
  92. Repeated exposure to and interaction with others is called __________
  93. Couples who are absorbed in one another—gaze into each other's eyes longingly and would be devastated to lose their relationship—are most likely experiencing ________
    passionate love
  94. The _________ theory of emotion holds that physical arousal accentuates romantic responses.
  95. The type of love we feel for people that is a labeled as a deep affectionate attachment is ________
    companionate love
  96. The cooling of intense romantic love can trigger a period of __________
  97. When your campus has a blood drive, you might weigh the costs (e.g., time, fatigue, needles, etc.) against the benefits (e.g., feeling good, free food, etc.) before deciding to donate. This strategy would be predicted by the ________
    Social Exchange Theory
  98. Skinner argues we only credit people for good deeds when we can't explain them. We attribute behavior to _________ only when we lack external explanations.
  99. The idea that self-interest motivates ALL behavior is _________
  100. After doing something bad and feeling guilty, we are most likely to engage in helpful behavior when other ______ about our misdeeds.
  101. After I lend my neighbor a cup of milk, I feel comfortable asking her to watch my house while I'm on vacation. This is due to my ascribing to the ________
    reciprocity norm
  102. People will donate bone marrow to people outside their families, in part, because of the ________
    Social responsibility norm
  103. One theory for why we see in-group favoritism drawn along ethnic lines is _________
    Kin selection
  104. When we focus less on our own distress and more on the sufferer's distress, we are experiencing ______
  105. Latané and Darley argue that people are most likely to help when they ___________
    notice an incident, interpret it as an emergency, and assume responsibility.
  106. Omitting certain people from one's circle of moral concern is _______
    moral exclusion
  107. Bribing people to do what they already enjoy doing undermines their intrinsic motivation. This is (the) __________
    overjustification effect
  108. Before agreeing to help out at the homeless shelter, Sharon weighs the costs (e.g., getting up at dawn on a Saturday) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about helping others) of doing so. This strategy would be predicted by __________
    Social Exchange theory
  109. The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese in New York motivated researchers Latané and Darley to investigate (the) _________ intervention