Germany, Austria, Hungary, Greece.txt
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Define anbaugebiete & name them, north to south
- Quality wine region
- Most important: Mosel, Rheingau, then Rheinhessen, Pfalz, Nahe
- Saale-Unstrut: northernmost region, near Freiburg
- Sachsen: easternmost region, near Dresden
- Ahr: west of Mittelrhein
- Mittelrhein: north of Koblenz on the Rhein
- Mosel ("MO-ZLE"): Saarburg to Koblenz; was Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
- Rheingau: north of Rheinhessen; Riesling, Spatbugunder
- Rheinhessen: Mainz to Worms; Muller-Thurgau, Silvaner, Riesling, Scheurebe
- Pfalz: touches Alsace, south of Rheinhessen; was Rheinpfalz
- Nahe ("NAIR"): west of Rheinhessen
- Hessische Bergstrasse: east of Rheinhessen
- Franken: east of Hessisch Bergstrasse on the Main river around Wurzburg
- Wurttemberg: southwest of Franken, includes Stuttgart
- Baden: between Pfalz and Wurttemberg
Name the 4 levels of geographic classification of German wines
- Anbaugebiet (13): "UN-BAWG-U-BEET", major wine growing region
- Bereich (39): "BEAR-EYESH", district of villages & vineyards. Each Anbaugebiet is divided into one or more Bereiche.
- Grosslage (170): "GROSS-LA-GUH", collection of single vineyards (cf. "Rutherford")
- Einzellage (2600), "EINZ-EL-LA-GUH", single vineyard
State the 4 quality levels of German wine
- Tafelwein: German table wine
- Landwein: German country wine, not important (c.f. Vin de Pays)
- Qualitatswein: quality wine from a specific region
- Pradikatswein: ripe wine
State the 6 Pradikat levels for Pradikatswein wines.
- Pradikat: min Oechsle(must), min ABV (wine)
- Kabinett: 67-82, 7%
- Spatlese: "SHPAYT-lay-zuh", 76-90, 7%
- Auslese: "OWS-lay-zeh", 83-100, 7%
- Beerenauslese: 110-128, 5.5%
- Eiswein: 110-128, 5.5%
- Trockenbeerenauslese: "TROCK-en-BEHR-en-OWS-lay-zeh", 150-154, 5.5%
What is VDP?
- Verband Deutscher Pradikatsweinguter
- Association of German Pradikat Wineries
- Originally, Rheingau's Erstes Gewachs (first growths) was created by the Charta ("KARTA") and VDP later created Mosel's Grosse Gewachs (great growths) but VDP acquired Charta.
What was Qualitatswein called before 2010?
- Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA)
- Quality wine from a specified wine region
What was Pradikatswein called before Aug 2007?
- Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP)
- Quality wine with distinction (ripeness)
How do you pronounce Oechsle?
How do you pronounce Gruner Veltliner?
Define Erstes Gewachs "AIR-STE-GEVIKS"
Rheingau "first growth" (single vineyard wine from best vineyards)
Define Grosse Gewachs "AIR-STE-GEVIKS"
Mosel "great growth" (single vineyard wine from best vineyards)
Define Halbtrocken & Trocken (and other sweetness designations)
- troken: dry
- halbtrocken: half-dry
- feinherb: off-dry
- liebich, mild, restsuss: semi-sweet
- suss, edelsuss: sweet
Sparkling wine, mostly bulk method
Define Suss Reserve
sterilized grape juice used to sweeten wine
State why wine can be made at 51 degrees lattitude & how they differ from Alsace
- South facing slopes on river banks
- German wines are higher in sugar and lower alcohol than Alsace
Name slang names for wines from Mosel and the Rheingau
- Mosel: Piesport, green glassware
- Rheingau: Hock, amber glasses
Name 1 village & vineyard in the Mosel
- Piesporter Goldtropfchen
- Brauneberger-Juffer Sonnenuhr
- Graacher Dromprobst
- Wehlener Sonnenuhr
- Urziger Wurzgarten
- Erdener Pralat
Name 1 village & vineyard in the Saar-Ruwer (cooler climate than Mosel)
- Saarburger Rausch
- Ockfener Bockstein
Name 1 village-vineyard in the Rheingau
- Rudesheimer-Berg Schlossberg
- Kloster-Eberbach (alleinbesitz, or monopole, for over eight centuries)
- Steinberger (famous walled vineyard)
- Hochheimer Holle
Why are the names of Grosslagen and Einzellagen always used with the name of a village?
Because some Einzellage are used in several villages.
State the grape that Spatburgunder is synonym for
State the grape that Weissburgunder is synonym for
State the grape that Grauburgunder is synonym for
Define Muller Thurgau
Reisling X Chassalas cross (derived from 2 different varieties of the same species, usually Vitis vinifera)
Define Liebfraumilch & state where it is commonly found
Cheap blended wine, mostly from Rheinhessen and Pfalz but also Rheingau and Nahe, from Muller-Thurgau, Silvaner, Riesling, and Scheurebe
Define Bocksbeutel & state where it is commonly found
Squat bottle, translated as goat's scrotum, used in Franken
Botrytis (noble rot)
Name any 1 anbaugebiete that is important for red wines
- Ahr: Spatburgunder and Portugieser
- Baden: Spatburgunder
- Rheingau Assmanhauser: Spatburgunder
Name the white grapes of Austria
- Gruner Veltliner
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
- Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)
- Scheurebe (Riesling X Silvaner)
- Welschriesling (not related to riesling)
Name the black grapes of Austria
- St. Laurent
- Blauburgunder (Pinot Noir)
- Blauer Portugieser
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Note: Blau = Blue
Name the major wine regions of Austria
- Niederosterreich: Kamptal, Kremstal, Wachau, Traisental, Donauland, Thermenregion
- Wien: the only capital city in Europe to have its own wine appellation within city limits; known for Gemischter Satz, Heuriger (primeur wine), Sturm (a half-fermented, sparkling grape juice)
- Bugenland: Neusiedlersee-Hugelland, Neusiedlersee, Weinbaugebiet, Mittelburgenland (reds), Sudburgenland (reds)
- Steiermark (Styria): Weststeiermark, Sudsteiermark, Sud-Oststeiermark
What is Bugenland known for?
World-class TBAs and Ausbruch
What is Styria called?
- The Alsace of Austria (for beauty since very different wine)
- Known for Sauvignon Blanc and dry fragrant wines
Define Ausbruch & Strohwein
- Strohwein: a dried (straw) grape wine of at least Beerenauslese ripeness
- Ausbruch: a sweet (botrytis) specialty of Rust in Neusiedlersee-Hugelland
Name the 2 most important wine regions in Hungary
- Eger (1522 legend of Bulls Blood)
- Note: Egri Bikaver is awful but grapes could be good
Name the black grapes of Hungary
- Kekfrankos (Blaufrankisch)
- Cabernet Franc
- Cabernet Sauvignon
Name the grapes of Tokaji.
- Muskatoly (Muscat Ottonel)
- Zeta(Oremus) (producer and grape)
- Sarga Muskotaly (Muscat Blanc � Petite Grains)
- a botrytis dessert wine
- Technically, a dry still wine sweetened with a paste made from botrytis grapes (Aszu)
- Wines designated in 3 Puttonyos (medium sweet) to 6 Puttonyos (very sweet)
Define puttonyos ("PUT-OWN-YAS")
- Small buckets (30 liters)
- Determines the quality level of Tokaji (number of buckets of paste added to dry wine)
Define Eszencia, Aszu Eszencia & True Eszencia.
- Aszu: Botrytis grapes mashed into a paste
- Eszencia: free run juices from botrytis grapes, used as a blending component
- Aszu Eszencia: 8 Puttonyos equivalent wine
- True Eszencia: extremely sweet and rare; min 10 years to ferment to 2-5% alcohol
What is Tokaji Szamorodniis?
a wine with no Aszu paste which may be sweet (Edes) or dry (Szaraz)
Name 2 important red AO, their grapes & state in Greece.
- Cotes de Meliton AO (Macedonia): Chateau Carrasmakesme makes a red blend of Bordeaux grapes & Limnio
- Naoussa AO (Macedonia): Red wines from Xynomavro
- Nemea AO (Pelopponese): Red wines from Agiorgitiko
- Mavrodaphne of Patras AO (Pelopponese): Fortified, sweet, red wine
Name 1 important white AO, its grapes & state in Greece.
- Samos AO (Aegean): Sweet whites from Muscat
- Santorini AO (Aegean): Whites from Assyrtiko
- Retsina: pine resin is added to the must
What is the dent in the bottom of a wine bottle called?
Punt or Pontil; caused by the glass blowers rod called a Punty rod.
What are the 3 quality levels of Austrian wine?
- Wein: replaced tafelwein in 2009; vintage and varietal but only Osterreich origin
- Landwein: 35 varietals but only Weinland, Steierland, or Bergland origin
- Qualitatswein: 2/3 production; 35 varietals, a single Weinbaugebiete (or smaller region), Prufnummer
- All three levels specify min yield; min must weights increase with each level of quality.
What is a Prufnummer?
State Control Number that indicates a qualitatswein has passed a tasting panel and chemical analysis, as does the inclusion of a red and white banderole (narrow flag) on the bottle's capsule.
Name the categories of Qualitatswein
- Pradikatswein: like German hierarchy but adds Strohwein above BA and Ausbruch below TBA
- Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC): dry wines; proscribed varietals, min alcohol, styles
What is Klosterneuburger Mostwaage (KMW)?
Austria sugar scale: 1% KMW = 1% must sugar
Rank Austrian Pradikatswein by Minimum Must Weights (degrees KMW)
- Generic Wine: 10.6
- Landwein: 14
- Qualitatswein: 15
- Kabinett: 17
- Spatlese: 19
- Auslese: 21
- Beerenauslese: 25
- Strohwein: 25 (Straw wine)
- Eiswein: 25
- Ausbruch: 27 (Botrytis)
- Trockenbeerenauslese: 30
Name the Wachau (only) quality levels (applies to any grape)
- Steinfeder: 11% alcohol
- Federspiel: Kabinett level
- Smaragd: Spatlese level
When was each DAC authorized?
- Weinviertel: 2002
- Mittelburgenland: 2005
- Traisental: 2006
- Kremstal: 2007
- Kamptal: 2008
- Leithaberg: 2009
- Eisenberg: 2010
Where are most of Austria's sweet wines produced?
Around the lake of Neusiedlersee in Burgenland
Name the subzones of Burgenland
- Mittelburgenland DAC: Blaufrankisch
- Eisenberg DAC: within Sudburgenland; Blaufrankisch
- Neusiedlersee: a large, shallow lake
- Leithaberg DAC: within Neusiedlersee-Hugelland; first DAC to allow both red and white wines; whites from Gruner Veltliner, Chardonnay, Neuburger, Weissburgunder; reds min 85% Blaufrankisch
What does Weinbauregionen mean?
- Broad geographic area
- Weinland: Niederosterreich (dry white), Wien (no quality wine), Burgenland (red wine and botrytis)
- Steierland: Steiermark (not much quality wine)
- Bergland: Austria's mountainous countryside
Describe the "antifreeze" scandel of 1985
Dozens of winemakers added diethylene glycol to their wines to add texture. Export markets cancelled their orders calling it "antifreeze" (ethylene glycol).
Name the 8 subzones of Niederosterreich (Lower Austria)
- Weinviertel DAC: largest subzone and first DAC, Gruner Veltliner, min alc 12% (reserve 13%)
- Traisental DAC: Erste Lage, Gruner Veltliner or Riesling, classi (12%) or reserve (13%)
- Kremstal DAC: Erste Lage, Gruner Veltliner or Riesling, classi (12%) or reserve (13%)
- Kamptal DAC: Erste Lage, Gruner Veltliner or Riesling, classi (12%) or reserve (13%)
- Wachau: Erste Lage, westernmost region, most ageworthy wines
- Wagram: known as Donauland prior to 2007; Roter Veltliner (red grape/white wine) is a specialty
- Carnuntum: field blends (Gemischter Satz) are popular
- Thermenregion: Rotgipfler and Zierfandle white wines; hot Pannonian summers
Which region produces Austria's best red and sweet white wines?
Name 2 synonyms of the Austrian Blaufrankisch grape
- Lemberger: Germany
- Kekfrankos: Hungary
What does Ried mean?
Top site. Replaces village name on label.
What is Osterreichischen Traditionsweinguter?
An association of Austrian wine producers founded in 1992 that defined Erste Lage
Name the subregions of Styria
- Sudsteiermark: Sauvignon Blanc
- Weststeiermark: ancient Blauer Wildbacher produces Schilcher(rose).
- Sudoststeiermark: Welschriesling and Weissburgunder
What is Dole?
Valais (the most important canton in Switzerland) blend of Pinot Noir and Gamay
What is Reze?
Indigenous grape of Switzerland used to produce Vin des Glacier, a maderized wine
Name some German vineyards and their gemeinde (municipality)
- Brucke: Oberhausen (Nahe)
- Grafenberg: Kiedrich (Rheingau)
- Kirchenstuck: Forst (Pfalz)
- Stein: Wurzburg (Franken)
- Juffer Sonnenuhr: Brauneberg (Mosel)
- Wurzgarten: Urzig, spice garden, (Mosel)
Describe the wines of Austria
- Lower Austria: Dry whites
- Vienna: Sweet whites
- Burgenland/Styria: Dry reds
What is the origin of Zinfandel?
Crljenak ("sirl-yen-ack") Kastelanski and Primitivo are genetically identical. However, Primitivo was introduced in Italy after Zinfandel appeared in the USA. Zinfandel was brought to Long Island from the Imperial State Nursery of Vienna at the beginning of the third decade of the 19th century. Plavac mali is related but Zinfandel and Dobricic are the parents of Plavac mali.
Name two great first growths of Tokaji
- Szarvas (near Tokaj)
- Mezes Maly (near Tarcal)
Name the wine classifications in Greece
- Controlled Appellation of Origin (OPE): traditional sweet wines of PDO quality
- Appellation of Superior Quality (OPAP): PDO quality
- Topikos Inos: Vin de Pays
- Epitrapezios Inos: Vin de Table
- Traditional Appellations: only Retsina and Verdea, a sweet white wine produced on Zakynthos
- Reserve: 2 (white) or 3 (red) years aging
- Grand Reserve: 1 more year age
What does Wiener Heuriger mean?
Vienna "winebar", often on the sidewalk
Name the Greek regions
- Thrace (no OPAP or OPE)
- Sterea Ellada (Central Greece; no OPAP; retsina)
- Ionian Islands
- Aegean Islands
Name the wine regions and grapes of Macedonia
- Naoussa: Xinomavro
- Amyntaio: Xinomavro, coolest region; only rose OPAP
- Goumenissa: Xinomavro and Negoska
- Playies Meliton: Domain Carras makes red blend of CS, CF, Limnio; whites: Assytriko, Athiri, Rhoditis, Malagousia
Name the wine regions and grapes of Epirus
Name the wine regions and grapes of Thessaly
- Rapsani: Xinomavro, Krasato, Stavroto
- Messenikola: reds
- Anhialos: Rhoditis, Savatiano
Name the wine regions and grapes of Sterea Ellada
- No OPAP or OPE
- Retsina (Savatiano with Aleppo pine resin)
Name the wine regions and grapes of Peloponnese
- Nemea: Agiorgitiko
- Mantinia: Moschofilero
- Patra: Rhoditis; Muscat of Patra OPE, Muscat of Rio of Patra OPE, Mavrodaphne of Patra OPE
Name the wine regions and grapes of the Ionian Islands
- Cephalonia: Robola of Cephalonia OPAP, Muscat of Cephalonia OPE, Mavrodaphne of Cephalonia OPE
- Kerkyra (Corfu): not OPAP
- Lefkada: not OPAP
- Zakynthos: Verdea (sweet white) is a Traditional Appellation
Name the wine regions of the Aegean Islands
- Crete: 20% Greek wine; OPAPs: Peza (Vilana, Mandilaria+Kotsifali), Sitia (Vilana), Arhanes (Liatiko, Mandilaria+Kotsifali), Dafnes (Liatiko)
- Santorini: Assyrtiko, Athiri, Aidami; stefani (basket) vines
- Paros: Mandilaria (red), Monemvasia (white)
- Limnos: Muscat, dry or sweet, Muscat of Limnos OPE
- Rhodes: Mandilaria and Athiri, Muscat of Rhodes OPE
- Samos: Muscat of Samos OPE
Training vines in a basket shape on Santorini
Name the most cultivated white grape on Crete
Name one of the most ancient grapes which delivers an "orange" wine
- Found only on Crete and a handful of neighboring islands
Name the most famous Greek wine
Muscat of Samos OPE
Name three versions of the Samos wine Moscato Aspro (Muscat Blanc � Petits Grains)?
- vin de liqueur
- vin doux naturel
- naturally sweet (Samos Nectar), similar to vin de paille
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