ch 2

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ch 2
2011-05-11 15:36:57

chemistry comes alive
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  1. matter
    anything that has mass & occupies space
  2. energy
    the capacity to do work
  3. potential energy
    energy of position
  4. kinetic energy
    energy of motion
  5. chemical energy
    stored in bonds of substances
  6. electrical energy
    movement of charged particles
  7. mechanical energy
    involved in moving matter
  8. radiant energy
    travels in waves of varying lengths, light infrared radiowaves xrays microwaves
  9. atoms
    smallest qualities of matter which retain all the properties of an element
  10. element
    particular quantity of matter
  11. 10 extremely abundant elements in body
    C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe, Mg
  12. Big 4 elements
    • Carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  13. nucleus
    • protons
    • neutrons
  14. atomic number
    each atom has a unique number of protons
  15. mass number
    # of protons + # of neutrons
  16. isotopes
    variant forms of an atom (vary in # of neutrons)
  17. radioisotopes
    unstable forms that decompose to more stable forms (decay)
  18. rule of 8's
    octet rule, atoms tend to establish completely filled outer energy levels
  19. cation
    lose an electron
  20. anion
    gain an electron
  21. mixtures
    combinations of matter, physically intermingled
  22. solutions
    homogenous (even)
  23. solvent
    greater amount
  24. solute
    smaller amount
  25. molarity
    measures of concentration
  26. mole
    • quantity of matter equal to its molecular weight in grams
    • ex. glucose (C6H1206)

    c=(12.01)x 6 + 12 (1.008) + 6(15.999)= 180.156 g
  27. avogrados #
    6.02 X 10 ^23
  28. colloids
    • emulsions
    • heterogeneus, appears milky, particles dont settle out
    • eg. cytoplasm
  29. suspension
    heterogeneous, larget parts settle out if not kept in motion, blood
  30. molecule
    2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
  31. compounds
    a molecule where the atoms are of different types
  32. a molecule of oxygen
    2 atoms of oxygen
  33. compound CO2
    2 O atoms, 1 Carbon atom
  34. chemical bonds
    • ionic
    • covalent
    • hydrogen
  35. ionic bond
    total loss or gain of an electron
  36. covalent bond
    "stable marriage" - goal of all bonding is to meet the rule of 8.
  37. nonpolar covalent bond
    • sharing of electrons is linear = equal sharing of electrons
    • ex: children of shared custody; equal time between two parents
  38. polar covalent bond
    unequal sharing of electrons. one nucleus has stronger pull when electrons are pulled towards one element that atom has a slightly negative charge