appears at about 6 months of age, peaks at about 18 months of age.
crying when caregiver leaves
7-8 months and peaks at 15 months.
an individuals behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences
reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, slow to accept change
slow to warm up child
low activity level, somewhat negative, displays a low intensity mood.
Kagans inhibition to the unfamiliar
7 to 9 months- react to many aspects of unfamiliarity with the initial avoidance, distress, or subdued affect
goodness of fit
refers to the match between a childs temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with
read the emotions of other people, reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a specific situation. become better by 2nd year of life
bowlby's phase 1
birth to 2 months- infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. strangers, siblings, and parents are equaly likely to elicit smiling or crying
bowlby's phase 2
from 2 to 7 months- attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish familiar from unfamiliar people.
bowlby's phase 3
7 to 24 months- specific attachments develop, increased locomotor skills babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, mom dad
bowlby's phase 4
24 months on- children become aware of others feelings, goals and plans and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions
ainsworth's strange situation
an observational measure of infant attachment in which the infant experiences a series of introductions, separations, reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in prescribed order.
use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore env. in presence of caregiver, babies explore environment. in absence of caregiver, midly protest. upon return infant reestablishes prositive interaction.
insecurity by avoiding mother. engage in little interaction with the caregiver, are not distressed when she leaves the room, do not reestablish contact upon return. turn back on mom
insecure resistant babies
cling to caregiver and then resist her by fighting closeness by kicking or pushing away. dont explore playroom, cling to caregiver. cry loudly upon leaving room, and push away if mom tries to comfort
insecure disorganized babies
disorganized and disoriented. dazed confused, fearful. strong patterns of avoidance and resistance or display extreme behaviors such as extreme fearfulness
secure attachment style (adults)
positive views of relationships, easy to get close to others, not overly concerned their romantic relationships, enjoy sexuality
avoidant attachment style (adults)
hesitant about getting involved romantic relationship, distance themselves from partner
demand closeness, less trusting, emotional, jealous, possesive
passionate love- strong components of sexuality and infatuation.
companionate love- occurs when ind have a desire to have the other person near and have a deep caring affection for the person
triangular theory of love
love has three main components - passion, intimacy, and commitment
physical and sexual attraction to another
emotional feelings of warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
cognitive appraisal of the relationship and our intent to maintain the relationship even in the face of problems