Human Sexuality

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Human Sexuality
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  1. What is pornography?
    Portrayal of explicit sexual subject matter for the purpose of sexual excitement and erotic satisfaction

  2. What is erotica?
    These are works of art including literature and photography, film, sculpture and paintings that deal with erotically stimulating or sexually arousing descriptions.
  3. what are the examples of censorship during early days?
    • Plato urged the editing of " The Odyssey"
    • Socrates wanted certain parts ommited
  4. Where is the origin of Kama Sutra and what does it geard toward?
    This book is believed to have neen authored by Vatsayayana in the 4th century and it is a treaties on love and sexual satisfaction.
  5. What does Pornography mean?
    • Porne= Prostitute/Whore
    • Graphy= Writing
  6. When did pornography gain a bad notation:
    It was not until after Judeo.Christian ethos
  7. What year was the Customs Laws and who was the person creating it ?
    • This law was set in 1842 by Anthony Comstock he was a postal inspector and a political figure.
    • He was not allowing dirty material come to United States
    • He had a big impact on sexual moree
    • He wanted to clean U.S. out of filth
    • Federal government gave him the power of arrest
  8. Whi is Ida Craddock?
    • She was a wealthy woman who was during the time of Comstock
    • She put a bruchure together because she realized that woman didn't know anything about sex
    • But people had to be old enough to buy the pamphelete
    • She had to go to court and was announced quilty so she came back and commited suicide
  9. Who is Margaret Sanger?
    • She is the founder of planned parenthood
    • She was also during Comstock
    • She was charged with using the U.S mail to distribute information about birth control
    • She was also accused but she left the state
  10. What are the Criteria for Obscenity as set by U.S. Vs. Roth 1957
    • The Dominant theme is a base interest in sex
    • It is patently offensive to community standard
    • It is without serious literary, artistic ,political or scientific value
  11. What is the definition of obscenity from Miller Vs. California 1973 ( The second law has to be looked at as a whole)
    • Whether the avarage person, applying contemporary community standards would find that the work taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest
    • Wheather the work depicts or describes in a patently offensive way sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law
    • Whether the work taken as a whole lacks serious literary artistic political or scientific value
  12. What are the effects of pornography as stated by Johnson Commission (US1970)
    There is no evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials plays a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior among young adults
  13. What are the effects of pornography as stated by the williams committee(UK 1979)
    It is not possible to reach well-based conclusions about what in this country has been the influence of pornography on sexual crime
  14. What are the effects of pornography as stated by Meese Commission (US 1986)
    Evidence strongly supports the hypothesis the substantial exposure to sexually violent materials bear a casual repationship to antisocial acts of sexual violence
  15. What country had same laws to the US on pornography?
    Denmark
  16. The Tin Drum was banned in what city in the US?
    Oklahoma city
  17. Sexuality and Aging
  18. What age group will form the highets portion of the population by 2050?
    20% of the population will be age 65 and over
  19. How does the life expectancy of men and woman today compares to past years?
    • The life expectancy for man was 46 and women 48 in 1900
    • The life expectancy for man is 75 for men and 80 for women now
  20. What is the percentage of the baby boomers that date regularly?
    70% and of those 40 and 59 years old 45% of men and 38% of women have intercourse at least once a week.
  21. Among baby boomers what is the most important reason for dating ?
    It is to find someone to live with or marry
  22. Why is the percent of women having sex between the ages of 65-74 decreases drastically?
    • Because men die sooner then women
    • Lack of partner
  23. What is the percentage of sexually avtive older sigles report having unprotected sex?
    61%
  24. What was the increase in the number of AIDS cases among adults over 50 (1990-2004)
    Seven folds
  25. What is the single most important mode of transmission of infection in age group of 50 and over
    Hetrosexual sex
  26. STI
  27. What is the most common STI at Maryland?
    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-Condyloma
  28. What is the Causing agent of HPV?
    HPV is caused by the virus so it does not go away and there is no cure for it.
  29. How many types of HPV excixts?
    Over 100 types
  30. Where does Virus live?
    The virus lives in the nerve bundels
  31. How many strains of the HPV virus are known to be sexually transmittable?
    At least 30 types
  32. HPV can cause:
    • Genital warts
    • Cervical cancer
  33. What are some treatments for HPV and what does treatment depend on?
    • Treatment depends on the location and also gender
    • Cryotherapy: Freezing of the tissue
    • Laser
    • Podophyllum: Cream that is applied to the penis that could remove warts
  34. What are prevention methods for HPV?
    • Reducing number of partners
    • Using condoms
    • Gardasil immunization provides prevention of
    • 90% of 6,11 genital warts
    • 75% of 16,11 Cervical cancer
    • Got approved by the FDA on 2006 for woman and 2009 for men
  35. What are the symptoms associated with yeast(candidiasis,Moniliasis) infection and is yeast infection transmissible?
    • Symptoms for females: whitish discharge from vagina, itchiness and burning
    • Male symptoms : reddish, flaky, itchy rash on penis and or groin
    • ** females don't have to have sex to get yeast infection and yeast infection considered STI because it can be transmitted to the partner.
  36. What is the incubation period for the yeast infection?
    2 to 5 days
  37. What is the treatment for yeast infection?
    • Monistat OTC for females
    • Lotrimin and OTC oinment for male , this is steroid based and after applying it should go away after 5/6 days.
  38. What is the causing agent of Trichomoniasis?
    Protozoa
  39. What STI is very common and tends to be a combination with other STI?
    Trichomoniasis
  40. What are the symptoms of Trich?
    • For females: Yellowish vagina discharge with bad odor
    • Male : Watery penile discharge and itchy feeling inside the penis
  41. What is the incubation period of trich?
    It is 5/28 days
  42. What are problems associated with treating STIs?
    • Mobility
    • Social Stigma
    • Ease of cure( people tend to engage more in sexual acts if they know STI treatment is easy)
    • Increase in a-symptomatic males
    • Increase in conterception use decreases condom use
    • Lack of education
  43. What other STI's can be caused by the bacteria that causes chlymedia?
    NGU and epididimidis in men
  44. What is the treatment of Trichomoniasis?
    • Flagyl for both sexes
    • ** when consuming this drug alcohol must be avoided.
  45. What STI bacteria causing agent has virus like symptoms?
    Chlamydia
  46. What are the symptoms associated with Chlamydia?
    • females are usually asymptomatic
    • Male: have penile discharge and stinging on urination which tends to be mild
  47. If chlymedia goes untreated what can it cause?
    PID
  48. What are the treatments for chlymedia?
    tetracycline
  49. What are the most common STIs in the united states and what groups are more likely to have them?
    • Chlamydia is the most common and Gonorrhea is the second most commonand african american are have the highest rate.
    • Chlamyhdia appears at higher rate in woman then men
  50. What can increase the risk of contracting chlamydia?
    • Multiple sex partners
    • sex at early age
    • inconsistent birth control use
  51. What is the most common site of infection for gonorrhea?
    It is the cervix
  52. What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
    • Females are usually asymptomatic
    • Male have thik white discharge and painful stinging sensation on urination
  53. What STI has the shortest incubation period?
    gonorrhea with the incubation period of 2-8 days.
  54. What are the means of transmission for gonorrhea?
    this can be transmitted orally or anally
  55. What are the treatments available for gonorrhea?
    • ceftriaxone
    • can be consumed orally or injected
  56. What are the two strains of herpes?
    • HSV 2 which is the genitals
    • HSV 1 which is cold sores
  57. What are the symptoms of HSV2
    • For females it can be moe or more sores on the labia or around the cervix, external sores can be painful
    • For male sore can be seen on the penis
  58. What complication can chlamydia and gonorrhea cause the baby?
    It can cause the baby eye infection and vision problems
  59. What are the treatments for HSV2?
    acylovir(zovirex)
  60. What does asymptomatic shedder mean?
    Thsi means that HSV2 can be transmitted without any symtoms
  61. What are the symptoms associated with hepatitis B?
    flu like symptoms, fever, lethergy,headaches and jaundice
  62. What are the treatments for hepatitis B?
    • There are no real effective medications
    • Usually rest and drinking liquids
    • Vaccines are recommanded
  63. What is phthirus pubis?
    This is a parasite
  64. What are the symptoms ofphthirus pubis?
    • itchy feeling in the pubic hair particularly at night
    • small dots on base of pubic hair
  65. What are the treatments for pubis?
    • Kwell which is a lotion
    • wash all clothing
  66. AIDS
  67. In what year outbreak of skin cancer was linked to gay pneumonia
    1981
  68. In what year cases among IDU were reported and rare disease among hemophilliacs were detected and epidemic was named AIDS
    1982
  69. What year french researchers isolate virus causing AIDS? and this subject became the main health priority?
    1983
  70. At what year NCI announces they found the virus causes aids?and gay bathhouses close?
    1984
  71. what year blood banks started testing donations for HIV?
    1985
  72. What are some famous people diagnoses with AIDS?
    • Rock Hudson who put a face to an unknown disease
    • Max Robinson ABC TV news anchor dies and before him AIDS was only a white men's disease
    • Magic Johnson announces he is HIV positive
    • Arthur Ashe tennis star
  73. What year the protease inhibitors were introduced to the drug cocktail?
    1995
  74. What year the Oral mucosa( orasure ) became available?what other even occured ?
    1997 also there was a reduction in the AIDS epiemic
  75. What are the two groups with the fastest growing rate of AIDS?
    • Hetrosexual woman
    • Teenagers
  76. What race/ethnicity has the highest rate of AIDS?
    • Black
    • White non hispanic
    • Hispanic
    • American Indians
  77. What is the highest mode of transmission?
    • It is the hetrosexual contact
    • It used to be MSM
  78. What are the states with the highest number of AIDs cases?
    New york, Florida,California and Texas
  79. What is the number reported for the AIDs cases in Washington DC?
    • 14 cases per 100000 people
    • DC rate is 128.4 cases per 100,000 which is higher than New york, Baltimore or philadelphia
  80. What category for HIV is the major source that the Federal funding is used for
    • Hetrosexual (37)
    • MSM (27)
    • IDU(14)
    • unknown(22)
  81. What category for HIV is the major source that the Federal funding is used for ?
    Care and treatment
  82. What does GRID stand for?
    Gay related immnunodeficiency disease
  83. What does AIDS stand for
    Aquired Immunodeficiency syndrome
  84. What does HIV stand for?
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus which is the cause of AIDS
  85. What is the major reason for death among peole with AIDS?
    Reduced ability of the immune system allowes for the opportunistic infections to attack and is one of the major reasons for death among HIV infected people
  86. What is HIV progression if it goes untreated?
    It takes 6month to 10 years for the HIV infected person to display AIDS and 2 years after that the person with AIDS dies
  87. What is the indirect measure of this disease?
    T4 Helper cell count (less then 200 per microliter)
  88. What is viral load?
    It is the amount of viral particle that is present in the blood sample
  89. Nowadays AIDs is considered to be what type of diesease?
    Chronic disease
  90. What are some opportunistic infections that are highly associated with AIDS?
    • PCP: type of pneomonia
    • Kaposi sarcoma : blood vessel cancer
    • AIDS dimentia : neurocognitive imparement
    • Pulmonary TB
    • Recurrent pneumonia
    • Cervical cancer
  91. What types of testings are used to diagnose HIV/AIDS?
    • Elisa : if a person comes positive they get tested again and if the second test is positive then they will do western blot
    • Western Blot
    • Oral Mucosa
    • Oraquick Rapid antibody test ( antibody test providing results in 20 min)
    • Antibody and Antigen test
  92. What is antibody?
    This is a protein used by the immune system to ID and destoy foreign objects
  93. What are treatments used for AIDS?
    • AZT ( decreased transmission to newborns)
    • Protease inhibitors
    • HAART
  94. What are sexual modes of transmission for HIV?
    • Anal which is #1
    • Vaginal
    • Oral
    • Kissing
  95. What are prevention methods?
    • Behavior change
    • Early detection
    • Education
    • Safe sex
  96. Alternate Sxual Expressions
  97. What is the definition of biological sex?
    Genetic material and chromosomes
  98. What is the definition of gender identity?
    Psychological sense of being male or female this made of of innate and socialization parts
  99. What is social sex roles?
    Adherence to culturally created behaviors
  100. Sexual orientation:
    The erotic and affectional disposition towards others
  101. What is term transgender mean?
    • The anatomical sex does not match gender
    • Appearance and bahaviors may not conform to societal roles
    • They usually don't go through surgery
  102. Transsexual means?
    • Not all transgender people are transsexual
    • Live as a gender other than that assigned at birth
    • May or may not alter secondary sex characteristics
  103. What is the purpose of the civil union?
    This was formend to give permission to same sex people the same sex couples benefits of marrieage.
  104. What state was the first to recoganize civil unions?
    • Vermont 2000
    • Massachusetts 2004
  105. What was the first country to recoganize gay marriage?
    Holland 2001
  106. What year civil union became legal in the United Kingdom?
    2005
  107. What states in 2006 move to ban gay marriage?
    • Colorado
    • Idaho
    • South Carolina
    • South Dakota
    • Tennessee
    • Virginia
    • Wisconsin
  108. What was proposition 8?
    In 2008 California votes in support of banning gay marriage also Florida and Arizona vote to ban gay marriage
  109. What states permit same sex marriage as of 2010?
    • Massachussetts
    • Connecticut
    • Iowa
    • Vermont
    • Maine
    • New hampshire
    • Washington DC
  110. The person who said that men are entitled to respect for their private lives was:
    Justice Anthony Kennedy
  111. The person who said : The court has largely signed on to the so called homosexual agenda was:
    Antonin Scalia
  112. What country was responsible for Early sexology research?
    Germany
  113. What was Freud views on homosexuality:
    Blending of nature vs. nurture
  114. The person who believed that there is no cure for homosexality was :
    Havelock Ellis
  115. What is natural can not be immoral was said by :
    Nietzsche
  116. When was Homosexuality removed by APA from list of mental illnesess?
    1975
  117. Homosexuality is not:
    • Transvestism
    • Transsexuality
    • Pedophilia
  118. What is the definition of homosexual?
    Someone who is emotionally, spiritually and physically attracted to members of the same gender
  119. What does sex or love by george trying to illustrate?
    this is trying to illustrate that the notion that homosexuals have sex and hetrosexuals have love is untrue and everyone wants to be loved.
  120. What is the kinsey scale?
    • this is from 0 to 6
    • 0 is straigh
    • 6 same gender
  121. According to Kinsy what is possible to determine?
    It is only possible to determine how many persons belong at any particular time to each of the classification on the scale
  122. what were the two studies done to place prevalence rates close to 2%?
    • Guttmacher 1993
    • University of Chicago 1994
  123. What is the ethiology of sexual orientation?
    • Biology(nature)
    • Environment(nurture)
    • Combination
  124. What are the two relevant homosexual studies?
    • Simon Levay (salk ins1992) first individual to find a difference in brain of gay vs. straight people
    • NIH (1993) this study looked at if sexual orientation was genetic that passed through generations and if it did it would be through maternal side
    • Karolinska institute(2008) they reported brain differences they looked at the amygdala involved in processing emotions
    • Bailey and Pillard (1992) study on twin males and twin females
  125. Sexual dysfunctions
  126. Sexual dysfunction tends to be more complex in what gender?
    Females
  127. What are different levels of intervention for sexual dysfunction?
    • PLISSIT (1974)
    • Permission giving (what you feel is ok)
    • Limited information (if you do or feel something once)
    • SS(specific suggestion, tell people to communicate)
    • IT intensive therapy
  128. What ways did Masters and Johnson suggest?
    • Brief and intensive focus
    • Needing a surrogate
    • Pairs of counselors
  129. What is the origin of the sexual dysfunction?
    Biopsychosocial
  130. What are the physical/organic causes of sexual dysfuction?
    • Neurological system
    • Endocrine system (decrease in testostrone or estrogen)
    • Vascular system( Blood flow)
    • Medical conditions (diabetes)
    • ** these are accounted for 10-20% of all sexual dysfuctions
  131. What are nonorganic causes of sexual dysfunction?
    • Performance anxiety
    • Guilt
    • Relationship issue
    • Fear of intimacy
    • Lack of communication
    • Fear in general
  132. What does the term spectatoring mean?
    This occurs mostly for males , it is when people critique themselves on performance
  133. What is hypoactive sexual desire?
    • In men this is caused by increased levels of prolactin produced by pituitary
    • This might develop to mask an existing dysfunction
    • HSD is not common but very difficult to treat
  134. What is the treatment for HSD?
    Psychotherapy
  135. What are sexual dysfunctions for woman?
    • In an orgasmia
    • Lack of lubrication
    • Vaginismus
    • Dyspareunia
    • Endometriosis
  136. What is inorgasmia?
    • This is the enability to experiance orgasm and it affets 10% of sexually active females
    • it could be primary this woman has never achieved an orgasm through any act, secondary is achieved an orgasm by not now,situational or coital this person has the enability to achieve orgasm through penis/vagina sex
  137. What are the ways to treat this?
    First rule out the physical then you can use masturbation and sensate focus
  138. What are the causes associated with lack of lubrication?
    • Reduction in estrogen leve(physical)
    • Lack of stimulation
    • Prolonged intercourse
    • Psychological causes
  139. What are the treatments for lack of lubrication?
    If they are not physical use therapy to discover and treat causes
  140. What is vaginismus?
    It is the involuntary contractions of the perivaginal muscles which makes penetration impossible, the cause can be psychological
  141. What are the treatment methods used for Vaginusmis?
    Therapy and dialators
  142. What is dyspareunia?
    This is painful intercouse it can be caused by physical , lack of lubrication, vaginismus yeast infection, STI also The cause can be psychological
  143. What is the treatment for dyspareunia?
    Physical exam can be done it it is not physical then therapy can be used
  144. What is endometriosis?
    • This approximately affects 15% of premenopausal women , this could happen when endometrial tissue breaks away and blocks fallopian tube and encases ovaries
    • This can cause backache, and make sex very painful
    • This is also considered to be a leading cause of infertility
  145. What are treatments available for endometriosis?
    • Oral conterception
    • Surgical removal of tissue
    • Getting pregnant due to not getting the period
  146. What are male sexual dysfunctions?
    • Premature ejaculation
    • Erectile disorder
    • Inhibited orgasm
  147. What is the definition of premature ejaculation?
    This is most common in younger men and it is defined as inability to control when you ejaculate within reason
  148. What roles do women play in men's premature ejaculation?
    • A Hurry up and finish attitue
    • Extremely long and heightend foreplay
    • Anxiety on the part of the female perceived by the male partner
  149. What treatments can be used for premature ejaculation?
    • sensate focus
    • finding the cliff edge
    • Master's and Johnson squeeze technique
  150. What is erectile dysfunction?
    This is also known as erectile dysfunction and impetence . It could be primary which means had not enough erection to penetrate a partner and usually it is physical, secondary means they are able to get erection but not now, situational
  151. What are the treatments for Erectile disorder?
    • Vaccume devices
    • Papaverine injection
    • Alprostadil pelletes ( they are pelletes placed in the penis)
    • Semi rigid rods
    • Pneumatic implants ( corpona cavonosa is removed and a pumo rod is replaced)

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