Neurotransmitters S2M1

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Neurotransmitters S2M1
2011-08-11 09:49:08
Ross S2M1

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  1. Neurotransmitter release is dependent on
  2. All neurotransmitters have what traits
    They are small water soluble molecules
  3. Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the permeability to what
    Sodium and sometimes calcium
  4. Inhibitory neurotransmitters increase permeability to what
    Chloride or potassium hyperpolarizing the cell
  5. What are the two types of neurotransmitter receptors
    • G-protein linked receptors (slow)
    • Ligand gated ion channels (fast)
  6. Adrenergic, dopamine, muscarinic, cholinergic, and opiate receptors are examples of what type of receptors
  7. Nicotinic cholinergic, GABA-A, and NMDA are examples of what type of receptors
    Ligand gated
  8. Acetyl-CoA + Choline =
  9. Choline used to make acetylcholine is found where in abundance
    It occurs in membrane lipids like Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin and is thus readily available
  10. How are the ion channels opened
    They contain a binding sight for acetylcholine (or other neurotransmitters) and when they bind they open the channel
  11. What attracts the ions to the ion channels
    They have a negative charge close to the gate
  12. Why does sodium pass through the ion gates more readily then the potassium
    The sodium has a larger electrochemical gradient
  13. Nicotinic receptors
    Ligand gated sodium channels in neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglion, and the brain
  14. Muscarinic receptors
    G-protein linked receptors froming IP3 or lowering cAMP in parasympathetically innervated tissues, sweat glands, and the brain
  15. Curare
    Drug that blocks Nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction, indians used them in their arrows
  16. Atropine and Scopolamine are drugs with what effect
    They block Muscarinic receptors
  17. Organophosphates are drugs that have what effect
    • They inhibit acetylcholinesterases irreversibly by reacting with the serine residue in its active site
    • Used in pesticides and chemical warfare
  18. Tyrosine can be made into what Biogenic amine (neurotransmitter) by what reaction
    • Catecholamine through decarboxylation
    • "Run the Cat over with a Tyre"
  19. Histamine is a biogenic amine made by what process from what amino acid
    Decarboxylation from Histidine
  20. Indoleamines are biogenic amines that are made from what amino acid
    Tryptophan via decarboxylation
  21. Serotonin is an Idoleamine with a technical name of
    5- Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
  22. What is the sequence of molecules made in Catecholamine synthesis
    • Tyrosine
    • L-DOPA
    • Dopamine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Epinephrine
  23. How is the inactivation of Catecholamines in the synaptic cleft different from other neurotransmitters
    They have to first be taken back up into the nerve terminal before they are broken down
  24. How are Catecholamine's taken back up into the nerve terminal
    Sodium Co-transport
  25. The deamination and subsequent methylation of Catecholamines in the presynaptic cell happens how
    MAO (deamination) and then COMT (methylation)
  26. The uptake of Catecholamines can be manipulated by drugs because
    It is taken up by a sodium co-transport, restricting the build up of sodium via ATP pumps can be regulated or stopped by drugs slowing down the uptake of catecholamines for breakdown
  27. The inactivation of Norepinephrine can happen via what routes
    MAO and then COMT vice verse
  28. What is the harmful product made by the break down of Norepinephrine
    H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide which can make free radicals
  29. Serotonin and subsequently Melatonin are made via what sequence of formed molecules
    • Tryptophan
    • 5-Hydroxytryptophan
    • 5-HT (Serotonin)
    • Melatonin
  30. What is the effect of Melatonin
    It is used as a sleep aide and is found only in the Pineal gland in the brain
  31. A deficiency in Vit B6 can have what effect
    It can cause difficulty in making neurotransmitters specifically Seritonin, Melatonin, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine
  32. Serotonin (5-HT) is broken down via what pathway
    • Uptake into the nerve terminal
    • Oxidative Deamination by MAO
  33. The breakdown of Biogenic amines (Dopamine, Epinephrine, Serotonin) is removed by what process
  34. Dopamine is broken down to what for removal
    Homovanillic acid
  35. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine is broken down to what for removal from the body
    Vanillylmandelic acid
  36. Serotonin is broken down to what for removal from the body
    5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid
  37. What are the MAO's for 5-HT, and Dopamine respectively
    • MAO-A "Sera (Serotonin) always gets A's"
    • MAO-B "Moab is Dope!"
    • Norepinephrine is degraded by both
  38. What is a clinical use of MAO inhibitors
  39. What can be the side effects of taking MAO inhibitors
    A hypertensive crisis can occur if taken with cheese or red wine. This is because MAO's in the liver breakdown harmful substances in these foods
  40. Parkinsons disease is caused by what
    Degeneration of nigro-striatal Dopamine neurons in the brain
  41. Why is L-DOPA administration not the preferred method for the treatment of Parkinsons disease
    It bypasses the rate limiting step increasing the hydrogen peroxide production which is believed to accelerate the conditions
  42. Why isn't Dopamine administered directly to Parkinsons diseased patients
    It would be broken down by the MAO's in the liver and therefore not have any effects
  43. Tricyclic antidepressants have what effects
    They inhibit the high affinity uptake of Norepinephrine and 5-HT therefore leaving them in the junction longer
  44. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) have what effect
    They inhibit the high-affinity uptake of 5-HT only
  45. Cocaine and Methylphenidate have what effect
    They inhibit the uptake of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and 5-HT
  46. What are the effects of Amphetamines
    They release more Dopamine, 5-HT, and Norepinephrine from nerve terminals
  47. Peptide neurotransmitters are most commonly used where
    In short interneurons and are usually released together with other neurotransmitters
  48. What are the most common peptide neurotransmitters
    Endorphins, TRH, Cholecystokinin, and Substance P
  49. What are the most important neurotransmitters in the CNS and why
    • Amino acids
    • They have a high affinity re-uptake
    • No biosynthetic or inactivating enzymes are needed
  50. What are the most important amino acid neurotransmitters
    • Glutamate, Aspartate (excitatory)
    • Glycine (inhibitory)
  51. Enhanced GABA has what effect in the brain
    • Sedative
    • Hypnotic
    • Anxiolytic (reduce anxiety)
    • Anti-convulsant effects
  52. What are the most important GABA drugs
    • Barbiturates (stimulate the GABA-A receptor)
    • Benzodiazepines aka. Valium (Sensitize the GABA-A receptors)
  53. Beta receptors have what effect
    • Raise cAMP
    • "Beta was raised in a concentration cAMP"
  54. Alpha 1 receptors have what effect
    Activate the IP3 system
  55. Alpha 2 receptors have what effect
    Reduce cAMP