PSYC 310 Ch. 15

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PSYC 310 Ch. 15
2011-05-12 13:02:42

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  1. Monkeys raised without peers (adults only) display:
    • immature play
    • overly aggresive
    • fearful
    • not cooperative
  2. Peer Only Rearing: monkeys raised without adults DID develop attachment to familiar peers, but they:
    • needed lots of reassurance
    • exhibited poor social skills
    • reduced exploration
    • deficient sexual behaviors
  3. Parent and Peer relations _____ each other.
  4. Parents provide affection and guidance so children have the ___ and ___ skills needed to enter into peer interactions.
    security and social
  5. Peers may also compensate for lacking ____ with adults, though they are not as effective.
  6. Babies interact with each other during the first year of life, but these are mostly ______ acts with not type of ____ or _____.
    • isolated
    • coordination or reciprocity
  7. Between the ages of 1 and 2, isolated acts _____ and coordinated interaction _____.
    • decline
    • increases
  8. By age 2, children given a choice of playmate will choose a ____ rather than their _____.
    • peer
    • mother
  9. The interactions between infants and toddlers are relatively ____, and are NOT _______.
    • rare
    • sustained
  10. Unoccupied, onlooker behavior, and solitary play
    Nonsocial activity
  11. Children play near each other with similar materials but with no interaction
    Parallel Play
  12. engage in separate activities, but with interaction (e.g., swappying toys or commenting on one another's behavior)
    Associative play
  13. True social participation, with actions directed toward a common goal.
    Cooperative Play
  14. What benefits does sociodramatic play (make-believe) play have?
    • improved social, cognitive, and emotional skills
    • conflict resolution
    • to explore and control scary experiences
  15. in middle childhood and adolescence, Peer communication improves because of more advanced _____ skills, as they meet others with different backgrounds, viewpoints, etc.
  16. ___ emerges as children enter middle childhood.
    Rough-and-tumble play
  17. Rough and tumble play has been observed in all mammal species at...
    the same developmental age.
  18. Why do come behaviors such as physical aggression decline in the school years?
    because children are more sensitive to prosocial expectations
  19. In adolescence, more time is spent with _____ than any other social partners.
  20. What 3 factors make peer interaction amongst teens gratifying?
    • opportunity to interact on equal footing
    • access to novel activities
    • common interests
  21. What influences peer sociability?
    • parental influences
    • play materials
    • age mix of children
    • cultural values
  22. Between ages of 4 and 7, how is friendship viewed?
    a handy playmate; whoever is there and plays with you
  23. Between the ages of 8 and 10, how is friendship viewed?
    as a mutual trust and assistance
  24. Between the ages of 11-15 years +, how is friendship viewed?
    as intimacy and loyalty
  25. Selection of friendships is remarkable _____ at all ages.
  26. There is a greater ____ of friends with increasing age.
  27. Stability of friendship increased from _____ through____ grade, but levels off between ___ and ____ grades.
    • 1st and 4th
    • 4th and 8th
  28. Why does friendship stability level off between 4th and 8th grades?
    probably because of friendships becoming more exclusive, and because puberty is a time of change in general.
  29. At earlier ages, friendship stability may be due to the constancy of the ______, rather than advanced social cognition.
  30. In preschool, these children treat "friends" and "nonfriends" differently by offering friends more:
    • social reinforcement
    • emotional expressions
    • sensitivity
  31. Compared to preschoolers, children in middle childhood work together better on tasks, spending more time ___, ____, _____ to each other, and focusing on ____.
    • helping, sharing, referring
    • friendship
  32. In middle childhood, they realize close friendship can survive a ____ if both are secure in their liking for eac other; thus they learn _____ at this age.
    • disagreement
    • conflict resolution
  33. In middle childhood, most children select friends who are somehow similar them....typically they share the same:
    • sex
    • ses
    • ethnicity
    • personality
    • popularity
    • academic achievement
  34. _____ is common in middle childhood, as children view their friends as "equals" and do not enjoy losing a contest to them.
  35. During adolescence, teens become less ______ of their friends than during middle childhood, as they recognize their friends need ______ just as they do.
    • possessive
    • independence
  36. _______, mutual _______, and ______ become more common during adolescence.
    cooperation-generosity, affirmation, self-disclosure
  37. During adolescence teens often share additiona similarities, such as _____, ______ goals, _____ beliefs, and willingness to try various activities (including negative ones.)
    • identity status
    • educational
    • political
  38. Teens are exposed to more diverse individuals and may sacrifice similarity for other important features. Example?
    popularity status
  39. Consistet differences emerge during midde childhood:
    • females spend more time "just talking"
    • males friendships are more activity-based
    • males discuss their achievements more
    • females discuss their relationships more
    • males report more opposite sex friends
    • females struggle more if they lack same-sex friends
  40. What do close friendships provide chances for?
    • self-exploration
    • social skills
    • coping with stress
    • better attitude toward school
    • grater involvement in school
  41. self-report measures that ask peers to rate each other's likability
    sociometric techniques
  42. Four categories of social acceptance:
    • Popular children
    • rejected children
    • controversial children
    • neglected
  43. These children get many "positive" votes
    • Popular Children
    • -Prosocial
    • -Antisocial(tough boys, views as cool)
  44. These children get many "negative" votes; actively disliked
    • Rejected Children
    • -Aggressive (bullies)
    • -Withdrawn (at risk for abuse by bullies; passive and socially awkward)
  45. These children get many positive and negative votes
    • Controversial Children
    • (display mix of positive and negative behaviors)
  46. These children seldom chosen, either positively or negatively.
    Neglected Children
  47. Rejected Childhood:
    • unhappy
    • poor-achieving
    • low self-esteem
  48. Rejected Adolescence:
    • academic problems
    • delinquency
  49. these fare better than rejected children-generally well-adjusted
    Neglected children
  50. some dislike these children, but enough like them to protect them from the negative effects of being rejected or neglected. Most are happy with their friendships. This group often changes over time.
    Controversial children
  51. Evidence is Correlational, and other factors are involved in popularity:
    • social behaviors
    • physial appearance
    • parenting
  52. Homes of popular children:
    • better communication
    • support
    • warmth
  53. Homes of rejected children:
    • stress
    • poor communication
    • discipline that is too strict or too lenient
  54. What is dating regulated by?
    social and cultural norms
  55. ____ youths begin dating later and are less likely than other cultures to have dating partners in adolescence.
  56. On average, romantic relationships last about _____ months between ages 12 and 14, but last almost _____ years after age 16.
    • 5
    • 2
  57. why do early teens date?
    • recreation
    • peer status
    • exploration
  58. Why do older teen date?
    • companion
    • affection
    • social support
  59. What do supportive and secure relationships with parents predict?
    secure friendships which in turn are related to secure romantic relationships
  60. Early, frequent dating is related to behavior problems, including...
    • drug use
    • delinquency
    • academic problems
  61. ____% of teens are abused by their dating partners, and this is equal for boys and girls
    10 to 20
  62. Teen males earn ______ when they date, but younger teen females often have ________ with other girls when the date.
    • status
    • social problems
  63. For older teens, what does dating provided needed lessons in?
    • cooperation
    • etiquette
    • compromise
    • coping skills
  64. For older teens, what does dating enhance?
    • self-esteem
    • empathy
    • identity development
  65. How do peers socialize one another?
    through direct instruction, modeling, and reinforcement
  66. changing behavior or attitudes to match another person or group
  67. What does conformity vary with?
    • age (preteens most conforming)
    • need for approval
    • the situation itself
  68. Parents have more impact on....
    • education
    • goals
    • religion
  69. Peers have more impact on....
    • social rules
    • appearance
    • music
  70. _____% of American homes have at least one TV, over 50% have 2 or more.
  71. The TV is switched on for an average of ____ hours per day.
  72. Regular viewing begins between ages ___ and ___ (1.5 hours/day) and increases to a peak at age ____ (4 hours/day), declining slightly during adolescence.
    • 2 and 3
    • 12
  73. the task of understanding television's specialized method of conveying information
    television literacy
  74. Under age ____, children are not able to integrate separate scenes into a continuous story line.
  75. Preschoolers do not understand ______(passage of time) or _____ (repeated events)
    • fades
    • instant replay
  76. _____ years: TV images are real objects
  77. ____ years: begin to make distincions about television vs. reality
  78. _____ years: grasp that all tv fiction is un-real
  79. Children CAN and DO mimic what they see on tv. From TV they learn:
    • commercialism/consumerism
    • aggression
    • prosocial behavior
    • stereotypes
  80. SOME TELEVISION shows promote learning but reduce _______.
  81. "Sesame Street": positively related to....
    vocab scores and school readiness
  82. Slower, nonviolent material with a clear story line may promote ____
  83. TOO MUCH TELEVISION: Can even "good" TV be over-used?
    Yes, not exercising, pretend play, socialize, outside
  84. Consensus of TV:
    in moderation, educational and/or non-violent shows can be beneficial
  85. What do children LEARN from computers?
    • instant info
    • word-processing
    • communication technology
    • computer assisted instruction
    • student collaboration
  86. What are some basic CONCERNS about children and computers?
    • social isolation
    • predators
    • haves vs. have nots
    • video games-violent
  87. As class-size drops below ___ academic achievement improves
    15 to 20
  88. Adolescents are more "involved" in _____ high schools, and more likely to engage in community participation.
  89. pupils are compared to themselves, teachers and pupils share decision making
    open classroom
  90. What are the benefits of an open classroom?
    • increased independent thinking
    • respect for individual differences
    • more positive attitudes toward school
  91. With each _____, grades drop and feelings of anonymity increase.
    school transitions
  92. Effective class room management and encouragement of "higher-level thinking" promotes ____ in the class room.
    achievement and interest
  93. when students adopt teachers' views and start to live up to them
    self fulfilling prophecy
  94. Self-fulfilling prophecy are more likely when ____ and ____ are emphasized, when teachers view poor achievers as limited in _____, and when fear of losing control of the class room is prominent.
    • competition
    • public evaluation
    • Ability
  95. ______ of MMR and LD children increases the challenges faced by teachers.
  96. placing MMR and LD children in regular classrooms part of the day
  97. Parental pressure has brought about _____, in which MMR and LD students are placed in regular classes full-time.
    full inclusion
  98. 5-10% of school aged children have ______- their achievement scores are significantly lower than expected for their overall IQ in one or more academic areas.
    Learning Disabilities
  99. Successful integration (mainstreaming) depends on....
    tailored instruction and peer acceptance
  100. School _____ issues have caused an increasing number of parents to hold their children back for kindergarten.
  101. Children who are older than most in their class have ____ behavior problems than those who are younger
  102. ______ grades in school produces very few benefits.
  103. Repeating grades produces problems with ___
    • self-esteem
    • motivation
    • peer relations
    • anxiety
    • disruptive behaviors (in boys)
    • attitudes toward school
  104. Extracurricular activities that focus on the arts, community service, and vocational development are related to:
    • better academic performance
    • improved social skills
    • reduced behavior problems
    • better peer acceptance
    • greater empathy
  105. The US fares no better than average, world-wide. We are ranked ____ in math school during _____ school, but we fall to the midpoint in ____ school and even lower in highschool.
    • #3
    • elementary
    • middle
  106. Other nations whose children have higher schores are those in which there is emphasis on:
    • achievement
    • effort
    • higher quality education (for ALL)
    • more time
  107. Research suggests American students:
    • get less challenging instruction
    • spend more time memorizing
    • inequity in education