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Monkeys raised without peers (adults only) display:
- immature play
- overly aggresive
- not cooperative
Peer Only Rearing: monkeys raised without adults DID develop attachment to familiar peers, but they:
- needed lots of reassurance
- exhibited poor social skills
- reduced exploration
- deficient sexual behaviors
Parent and Peer relations _____ each other.
Parents provide affection and guidance so children have the ___ and ___ skills needed to enter into peer interactions.
security and social
Peers may also compensate for lacking ____ with adults, though they are not as effective.
Babies interact with each other during the first year of life, but these are mostly ______ acts with not type of ____ or _____.
- coordination or reciprocity
Between the ages of 1 and 2, isolated acts _____ and coordinated interaction _____.
By age 2, children given a choice of playmate will choose a ____ rather than their _____.
The interactions between infants and toddlers are relatively ____, and are NOT _______.
Unoccupied, onlooker behavior, and solitary play
Children play near each other with similar materials but with no interaction
engage in separate activities, but with interaction (e.g., swappying toys or commenting on one another's behavior)
True social participation, with actions directed toward a common goal.
What benefits does sociodramatic play (make-believe) play have?
- improved social, cognitive, and emotional skills
- conflict resolution
- to explore and control scary experiences
in middle childhood and adolescence, Peer communication improves because of more advanced _____ skills, as they meet others with different backgrounds, viewpoints, etc.
___ emerges as children enter middle childhood.
Rough and tumble play has been observed in all mammal species at...
the same developmental age.
Why do come behaviors such as physical aggression decline in the school years?
because children are more sensitive to prosocial expectations
In adolescence, more time is spent with _____ than any other social partners.
What 3 factors make peer interaction amongst teens gratifying?
- opportunity to interact on equal footing
- access to novel activities
- common interests
What influences peer sociability?
- parental influences
- play materials
- age mix of children
- cultural values
Between ages of 4 and 7, how is friendship viewed?
a handy playmate; whoever is there and plays with you
Between the ages of 8 and 10, how is friendship viewed?
as a mutual trust and assistance
Between the ages of 11-15 years +, how is friendship viewed?
as intimacy and loyalty
Selection of friendships is remarkable _____ at all ages.
There is a greater ____ of friends with increasing age.
Stability of friendship increased from _____ through____ grade, but levels off between ___ and ____ grades.
Why does friendship stability level off between 4th and 8th grades?
probably because of friendships becoming more exclusive, and because puberty is a time of change in general.
At earlier ages, friendship stability may be due to the constancy of the ______, rather than advanced social cognition.
In preschool, these children treat "friends" and "nonfriends" differently by offering friends more:
- social reinforcement
- emotional expressions
Compared to preschoolers, children in middle childhood work together better on tasks, spending more time ___, ____, _____ to each other, and focusing on ____.
- helping, sharing, referring
In middle childhood, they realize close friendship can survive a ____ if both are secure in their liking for eac other; thus they learn _____ at this age.
- conflict resolution
In middle childhood, most children select friends who are somehow similar them....typically they share the same:
- academic achievement
_____ is common in middle childhood, as children view their friends as "equals" and do not enjoy losing a contest to them.
During adolescence, teens become less ______ of their friends than during middle childhood, as they recognize their friends need ______ just as they do.
_______, mutual _______, and ______ become more common during adolescence.
cooperation-generosity, affirmation, self-disclosure
During adolescence teens often share additiona similarities, such as _____, ______ goals, _____ beliefs, and willingness to try various activities (including negative ones.)
- identity status
Teens are exposed to more diverse individuals and may sacrifice similarity for other important features. Example?
Consistet differences emerge during midde childhood:
- females spend more time "just talking"
- males friendships are more activity-based
- males discuss their achievements more
- females discuss their relationships more
- males report more opposite sex friends
- females struggle more if they lack same-sex friends
What do close friendships provide chances for?
- social skills
- coping with stress
- better attitude toward school
- grater involvement in school
self-report measures that ask peers to rate each other's likability
Four categories of social acceptance:
- Popular children
- rejected children
- controversial children
These children get many "positive" votes
- Popular Children
- -Antisocial(tough boys, views as cool)
These children get many "negative" votes; actively disliked
- Rejected Children
- -Aggressive (bullies)
- -Withdrawn (at risk for abuse by bullies; passive and socially awkward)
These children get many positive and negative votes
- Controversial Children
- (display mix of positive and negative behaviors)
These children seldom chosen, either positively or negatively.
- low self-esteem
- academic problems
these fare better than rejected children-generally well-adjusted
some dislike these children, but enough like them to protect them from the negative effects of being rejected or neglected. Most are happy with their friendships. This group often changes over time.
Evidence is Correlational, and other factors are involved in popularity:
- social behaviors
- physial appearance
Homes of popular children:
- better communication
Homes of rejected children:
- poor communication
- discipline that is too strict or too lenient
What is dating regulated by?
social and cultural norms
____ youths begin dating later and are less likely than other cultures to have dating partners in adolescence.
On average, romantic relationships last about _____ months between ages 12 and 14, but last almost _____ years after age 16.
why do early teens date?
- peer status
Why do older teen date?
- social support
What do supportive and secure relationships with parents predict?
secure friendships which in turn are related to secure romantic relationships
Early, frequent dating is related to behavior problems, including...
- drug use
- academic problems
____% of teens are abused by their dating partners, and this is equal for boys and girls
10 to 20
Teen males earn ______ when they date, but younger teen females often have ________ with other girls when the date.
For older teens, what does dating provided needed lessons in?
- coping skills
For older teens, what does dating enhance?
- identity development
How do peers socialize one another?
through direct instruction, modeling, and reinforcement
changing behavior or attitudes to match another person or group
What does conformity vary with?
- age (preteens most conforming)
- need for approval
- the situation itself
Parents have more impact on....
Peers have more impact on....
- social rules
_____% of American homes have at least one TV, over 50% have 2 or more.
The TV is switched on for an average of ____ hours per day.
Regular viewing begins between ages ___ and ___ (1.5 hours/day) and increases to a peak at age ____ (4 hours/day), declining slightly during adolescence.
the task of understanding television's specialized method of conveying information
Under age ____, children are not able to integrate separate scenes into a continuous story line.
Preschoolers do not understand ______(passage of time) or _____ (repeated events)
_____ years: TV images are real objects
____ years: begin to make distincions about television vs. reality
_____ years: grasp that all tv fiction is un-real
Children CAN and DO mimic what they see on tv. From TV they learn:
- prosocial behavior
SOME TELEVISION shows promote learning but reduce _______.
"Sesame Street": positively related to....
vocab scores and school readiness
Slower, nonviolent material with a clear story line may promote ____
TOO MUCH TELEVISION: Can even "good" TV be over-used?
Yes, not exercising, pretend play, socialize, outside
Consensus of TV:
in moderation, educational and/or non-violent shows can be beneficial
What do children LEARN from computers?
- instant info
- communication technology
- computer assisted instruction
- student collaboration
What are some basic CONCERNS about children and computers?
- social isolation
- haves vs. have nots
- video games-violent
As class-size drops below ___ academic achievement improves
15 to 20
Adolescents are more "involved" in _____ high schools, and more likely to engage in community participation.
pupils are compared to themselves, teachers and pupils share decision making
What are the benefits of an open classroom?
- increased independent thinking
- respect for individual differences
- more positive attitudes toward school
With each _____, grades drop and feelings of anonymity increase.
Effective class room management and encouragement of "higher-level thinking" promotes ____ in the class room.
achievement and interest
when students adopt teachers' views and start to live up to them
self fulfilling prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy are more likely when ____ and ____ are emphasized, when teachers view poor achievers as limited in _____, and when fear of losing control of the class room is prominent.
- public evaluation
______ of MMR and LD children increases the challenges faced by teachers.
placing MMR and LD children in regular classrooms part of the day
Parental pressure has brought about _____, in which MMR and LD students are placed in regular classes full-time.
5-10% of school aged children have ______- their achievement scores are significantly lower than expected for their overall IQ in one or more academic areas.
Successful integration (mainstreaming) depends on....
tailored instruction and peer acceptance
School _____ issues have caused an increasing number of parents to hold their children back for kindergarten.
Children who are older than most in their class have ____ behavior problems than those who are younger
______ grades in school produces very few benefits.
Repeating grades produces problems with ___
- peer relations
- disruptive behaviors (in boys)
- attitudes toward school
Extracurricular activities that focus on the arts, community service, and vocational development are related to:
- better academic performance
- improved social skills
- reduced behavior problems
- better peer acceptance
- greater empathy
The US fares no better than average, world-wide. We are ranked ____ in math school during _____ school, but we fall to the midpoint in ____ school and even lower in highschool.
Other nations whose children have higher schores are those in which there is emphasis on:
- higher quality education (for ALL)
- more time
Research suggests American students:
- get less challenging instruction
- spend more time memorizing
- inequity in education