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Comes after the topic
The topic is something both the speaker and listener know
- Toni-san wa pan o tabemasu
- Mr. Tony east bread.
- Watashi wa gakusei desu
- I am a student
Comes when something new is introduced
Used in the question of who or what
- The object of the sentence is usually marked by the particle "o," but some verbs and adjectives (expressing like/dislike (kirai), want(koshii), potential, necessity, fear, need(hitsuyo), be located, exist(aru) etc.) take "ga" instead of "o."
- EX: Kuruma ga hoshii desu.
- I want a car.
Used to indicate subject in a subordinate clause
- Who or what:
- Dare ga kimasu ka?
- Who is coming?
- Emphasise the subject:
- Taro ga gakkou ni ikimashita.
- Taro is the one who went to school
- Kare ga Osaka ni ikimashita.
- He (is the one who) went to Osaka.
- Used in Subordinate clauses
- Okyaku-sama ga sugu kimasu node, okasan wa totemo isogashii desu.
- Since guests are coming soon, Mother is very busy.
- Exception words
- Watakushi wa chokoreto ga suki desu.
- I like chocolate.