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- Both have a depressing effect on the central nervous system
- Barbiturates- initial period of excitement that is followed by slurred speech and motor functions
- -Physical and psychological dependence
- -Three types of abuse:
- 1. chronic
- 2. episodic
- 3. Intraveneous
- -Morphine and heroine (derived from morphine)
- 1) Natural synthetic substances that act on the body similarly to opium poppy
- - Heroin best known--referred to as narcotics - Natural Opiods: endorphins, dymorphins, and enkephalins
- 2) Intoxication- drowsiness and slurred speech, impairment
- -Both sedative and analgesic effects, that are short-acting.
- 3) Withdrawal- depressed mood, nausea, muscle aches, sweating, diarrhea, fever
- 1) Grown naturally from coco bush;
- - Local anesthetic and a stimulant to the central nervous system
- - Crack is synthesized from cocaine and is easily vaporized for inhalation.
- * Crack is a very effective gateway drug because it is cheap, effective, and produces dependence quickly.
- 2) Intoxication- abnormal heart beat, dilation of pupils, elevated blood pressure
- -Cocaine: intoxication starts with euphoria by stimulating release of dopamine.
- *Most derivative of dopamine…will really truly feel like orgasm
- 3) Withdrawal- fatigue, unpleasant dreams, increased appetite
- -Stimulant to the psychomotor senses; significant effects on cardiovascular and nervous system
- *Chemically different from cocaine but similar in their effect, by increasing sensitivity of the norepinephrine and dopamine receptors.
- -Intoxication: Suppresses appetite, improves mood, increases ability to concentrate and focus attention.
*Meth remains in the body longer and is less expensive than cocaine.
-Examples: speed, crystal meth-
- - Act on the central nervous system to produce alterations of consciousness
- * affect the sensory processing centers in the brain.
- - Change perception of both internal and external world
- - Dependence is less likely and withdrawal is not an issue, but long-term perceptual disorders occur.
- *Associated with onset of schizophrenia
- -Example: LSD & STP
- -Dissociative aesthetic: Makes person feel detached from their environment
- -Example: angel dust, crystal- swallowed, sniffed or injected
- - Volatile substances of organic solvents such as gasoline, glue, lighter fluid, paints
- - Virtually the only way to use these is by inhaling to get a high
- -Gives feelings of high- inappropriate laughter, grandiosity, lethargy and then impairment
- -Example: Marijuana,