Chapter 21 Study Guide U.S. History

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  1. a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court
    ruled that “separate but equal” education for black and white students was
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
  2. an organization formed in 1957 by Dr.
    Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through
    nonviolent means.
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  3. an organization formed in 1960 to
    coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in
    the civil rights movement.
    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  4. a form of demonstration used by African
    Americans to protest discrimination, in which the protesters sit down in a
    segregated business and refuse to leave until they are served.
  5. one of the civil rights activists who rode buses
    through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation
    Freedom Riders
  6. a law that banned discrimination on the
    basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  7. a 1964 project to register African-American voters
    in Mississippi.
    Freedom Summer
  8. a law that made it easier for African Americans to
    register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing
    federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level
    Voting Rights of 1965
  9. racial separation established by the
    practice and custom, not by law.
    De Facto Segregation
  10. racial separation established by the law.
    De Jure Segregation
  11. a religious group, popularly known as
    the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and
    the Islamic religion.
    Nation of Islam
  12. a militant African-American political
    organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police
    brutality and to provide services in the ghetto.
    Black Panthers
  13. a law that banned discrimination in
    Civil Rights Act of 1968
  14. a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past
    discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged
    Affirmative Action
  15. an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court
    ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus
    establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine.
    Plessy v. Ferguson
  16. influential lawyer for the NAACP; later
    became the first African-American supreme court justice.
    Thurgood Marshall
  17. Montgomery bus rider whose protest in
    1955 sparked an organized bus boycott.
    Rosa Parks
  18. civil rights leader; voice of nonviolence,
    equality, and justice; awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
    Martin Luther King Jr.
  19. first African American admitted into an
    All-white University after winning a Federal Court Case.
    James Meredith
  20. daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers, was the
    voice at the 1964 Democratic National Convention
    Fannie Lou Hamer
  21. the black leader who preached a
    separatist message based on Nation of Islam principles.
    Malcolm X
  22. the SNCC radical activist who called
    for Black Power.
    Stokely Carmichael
  23. boy killed for whistling to a white woman, killed
    in Mississippi
    Emmett Till
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Chapter 21 Study Guide U.S. History
Chapter 21 U.S. History
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