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a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court
ruled that “separate but equal” education for black and white students was
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
an organization formed in 1957 by Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
an organization formed in 1960 to
coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in
the civil rights movement.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
a form of demonstration used by African
Americans to protest discrimination, in which the protesters sit down in a
segregated business and refuse to leave until they are served.
one of the civil rights activists who rode buses
through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation
a law that banned discrimination on the
basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a 1964 project to register African-American voters
a law that made it easier for African Americans to
register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing
federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level
Voting Rights of 1965
racial separation established by the
practice and custom, not by law.
De Facto Segregation
racial separation established by the law.
De Jure Segregation
a religious group, popularly known as
the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and
the Islamic religion.
Nation of Islam
a militant African-American political
organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police
brutality and to provide services in the ghetto.
a law that banned discrimination in
Civil Rights Act of 1968
a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past
discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged
an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court
ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus
establishing the “separate but equal” doctrine.
Plessy v. Ferguson
influential lawyer for the NAACP; later
became the first African-American supreme court justice.
Montgomery bus rider whose protest in
1955 sparked an organized bus boycott.
civil rights leader; voice of nonviolence,
equality, and justice; awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
Martin Luther King Jr.
first African American admitted into an
All-white University after winning a Federal Court Case.
daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers, was the
voice at the 1964 Democratic National Convention
Fannie Lou Hamer
the black leader who preached a
separatist message based on Nation of Islam principles.
the SNCC radical activist who called
for Black Power.
boy killed for whistling to a white woman, killed