Bio

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c.may_34
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85389
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Bio
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2011-05-12 02:29:31
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BIo final
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ugh! biology
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  1. -_____ _______ -failure of homologus chromosomes to separate during meiosis. result in an individual having too much or too little genetic info
  2. -___________________ -gene acting to prevent the uncontrolled growth of cells -works to stop the development of cancerous cells -mutations are recessive (need two bad copies)
    tumor suppressor genes
  3. Ch9 II. Bacterial Reproductioncont...B. _____________
    1. sexual reproduction of bacterial cells 2. exchanging of ______(extra genetic info) between bacteria that are genetically different
    • B. Bacterial Conjucation
    • 2. plasmids
  4. Cancer Treatment a. ________
    b. _____________
    1. use of chemicals to destroy rapidly dividing cells
    c. _________
    1. use of energy to destroy rapidly dividing cells
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation
  5. -____________ -the sister chromatids begins to loosen, change from the appearance of chromosomes to chromatin -the nuclear membrane begins to reappear around both DNA molecules, on separate sides of the cell -the process of cytokinesis will occur during teleophase -cytokinesis – cytoplasmic separation, that results in two separate cells -there are two types of cytokinesis, depending on the cell type, cleavage furrow in animal cells and cell plate formation in plant cells
    Telophase
  6. Formation of a Tumor -_________- mass of rapidly dividing cells
    -__________ – cells remain in original location
    -______________ – cells move to new location
    Tumor benign tumor malignant tumor
  7. -_________ -nuclear division that occur in somatic cells -result in the production of genetically identical cells
    mitosis
  8. A. __________: -the alternating of growth and reproduction of cells
    cell cycle
  9. Ch12 - chromosomes and human inheritance I. Background Information -_______
    - chromosomes that determine non-sex characteristics of an individual -____ _________
    -chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
    -females have 2x chromosomes
    -males have an x and y chromosomes
    -autosomes -sex chromosomes
  10. -predict genotype and phenotype of offspring
    -______
    - genetics (can't be seen) -_______
    - physical characteristics (can be seen) -_______
    - same letters (2 upper, 2 lower) -_______
    - different letters -________
    - uppercase letters-________
    - lowercase letters
    -genotype -phenotype -homozygous -heterozygous -dominant -recessive
  11. I. Background Info-
    _________ -condensed, tightly coiled appearance of DNA
    -__________ -loose, scattered appearance of DNA-__________ -DNA double helix
    • chromosome
    • -chromatin
    • -chromatid
  12. _________-constricted region where sister chromatids are attached (roughly center of chromosome)-
    _________ -protein binding sites for cytoskeleton during cellular reproduction
    -_________-structures responsible for the organization of mitotic spindle (long thin fibers that move chromosomes)
    • centromere
    • kinetochore
    • centrioles
  13. -________ -have two copies of each chromosome (one from each parent)
    -_________ -having only one copy of each chromosome
    • Diploid
    • Haploid
  14. -_______ ________ - many genes will have more than one allele becuase of mutations -__________ -two dominant alleles being expressed equally, (ex: ABO BloodType)
    -so both alleles are showing up at the same time, which is contrary to what he used to say that one is dominant and one is kinda in the background
    • -multiple alleles
    • -co dominance
  15. -Binary fusion cont.
    -Divided into 3 phases -____________ -Bacterial DNA (circular) is copied and attached to the plasma membrane
    -_________-increase of cell size and content between the replicated DNA
    -_________ -bacterial cells split between the replicated DNA
    • Replication
    • elongation
    • separation
  16. A. Cell Cycle: 1. the alternating of growth and reproduction of cells
    2. Divided into two parts: _________ and _________
    . interphase and mitosis
  17. Divided into 4 phases -__________
    -genetic info changes in appearance from chromatin to chromosome -nuclear membrane will fragment and disappear
    -__________ -chromosomes line up in the center of the cell -_________ -separation of sister chromatidscont...
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
  18. Disorders
    -__________ - -formed from non-disjunction of the sex chromosome
    -female with three copies of the X chromosome. Her genotype is XXX
    -female is "normal"
    Trisomy X
  19. ch11 III. Punnett Square-___________
    -prediction of genotype and phenotype of offspring
    punnett square
  20. -Meiosis
    -nuclear division that (will/will not) produce genetically identical cells
    -production of 4 _____ cells from 1 _____ cell
    -occur in the ___ cells (sperm and eggs cells) -reduction/division process
    -crossing over: exchanging of genetic info between __________ chromosomes
    • -will NOT
    • - haploid...diploid
    • -sex
    • -homologous
  21. genetic disorders cont... -______ _______________ -formed from non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes -male with 2 copies of the chromosome and 1 copy of the X chromosome. His genotype is XYY -male is "normal"
    -Jacob's Syndrome
  22. enetic disorders cont.. -______ ______ -
    -formed from non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes
    -female with only one copy of X chromosome. Her genotype is XO
    -female is sterile, small in stature, show signs of mental retardation and lack or have diminished secondary sexual characteristics
    -Turner's Syndrome
  23. genetic disorders cont... -_________ _____________ -formed from non-disjunction in the sex chromosomes
    -male with 2 copies of the X chromosome and 1 copy of the Y chromosomes. His genotype is XXY
    -male will be sterile and have mixed secondary sexual characteristics
    -Klinefelter Syndrome
  24. I. Bacterial Reproduction-______________ -asexual reproduction of bacterial/prokaryotic cells
    -production of genetically identical cells
    binary fusion
  25. ch9 III. Cell cycle-Cell Cycle:
    1. the alternating of growth and reproduction of cells
    2. Divided into two parts: interphase and mitosis
    3. __________ – q. first and longest phase of the cell cycle b. divided into three stages
    :1. ___: replication of cellular components (everything but the nucleus)
    2. ___: replication of genetic material
    3. ___: last minute checkpoint
    • 3. interphase
    • 1. G1
    • 2. S
    • 3. G2
  26. -genetic background -______________-normal healthy gene that control cellular division. -Promotes cellular division -___________ -mutated version of proto-oncogene
    -promotes the development of cancerous cells -mutations are dominant (need only one bad copy)
    • proto-oncogene
    • oncogene
  27. I. Genetic Disorders -_________
    -formed from non-disjunction of the autosomes -result in the individual having three copies of chromosome #21
    -results in Down Syndrome
    TRISOMY 21
  28. Mendel’s Hypothesis-Mendel’s 5 Part Hypothesis
    -Every gene will have ___ alleles (alternate forms or variations of genes)
    -Law of ________ – alleles will separate during meiosis
    -Law of ____________________ – allele separation is completely random
    • - two
    • -Segregation
    • -Independent Assortment
  29. Ch 10 I. Background Info-
    Sexually reproducing cells
    -____ cell in women
    -_______ cell in men
    -___________________-chromosomes that are the same length, shape and carry the same genes in the same order
    • egg
    • sperm
    • Homologous chromosomes
  30. V. Cancer-____________– uncontrolled cellular division of somatic cells
    Cancer
  31. . Cancer stages: 1. _______ -change in the proto-oncogene or tumor suppressor regio of a gene resulting in the loss of normal control of cellular division
    mutation
  32. I. Mendel's Hypothesis law of independent assortment cont.
    -One allele is ______(mask/hide the expression of another allele) and one allele is _______ (masked/hidden in the presence of another allele) -individuals are ________ (having the same alleles for a gene) or _________ (having different alleles for a gene)
    • dominant ....recessive
    • -homozygous...heterozygous
  33. 3. Invasion
    -_________ – spreading of cancer cell from their original sites to form new secondary tumors
    metastasis
  34. -_____ _______ -failure of homologus chromosomes to separate during meiosis. result in an individual having too much or too little genetic info
    -______ _________ -genetic disorders carried on the sex chromosomes
    • non-disjunction
    • -sex linked
  35. Ch11 variations cont... -_________ ______ - dominant allele does not completely hide the recessive allele. Heterozygote is an intermediate of both alleles (ex. pink flowers)
    -_________ _________ - many genes control one physical characteristic (ex. eye color or skin tone) -_______ - one gene controls many physical characteristics (ex. SRY gene in males)
    • -incomplete dominance
    • -polygenic inheritance
    • -pleiotropy

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