Human geo 3

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  1. Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmers family
    Subsistence Agriculture
  2. Advances in technology and economic development allows MDC’s to produce surplus
    Commercial Agriculture
  3. Rapid diffusion of new agriculture technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
    Green Revolution
  4. Large-scale farming operations, Growth of specialized ancillary industries, requires large input of energy, water, chemicals. Today only 2% of US employed in agricultural sector
    Corporate Agriculture
  5. One crop cultivate repeatedly over a large area
  6. *Bread grains, grapes, olives, apples
    *10,000 BP
    *Diffused to central Africa (coffee)
    Fertile Crescent (Middle East)
  7. *Rice, citrus taro, bananas, sugarcane (tea-3000 bp)
    * Stimulus diffusion produced a secondary center in NE China
    SE Asia
  8. *Started about 5,000 BP
    *Maize, tomatoes, chili peppers and squash
    *Stimulus diffusion produced a secondary center in NW South America (potato)
  9. Practiced in Humid Low-Latitude regions with high temperature and abundant rainfall. Each year villages select a small tract of land surrounding settlement. Burn the dense tropical vegetation to clear the land (Slash and burn)
    Shifting Cultivation
  10. Based on herding on domesticated animals. Adapted to dry climates where plating crops is impossible. Occurs in semiarid lands in North Africa, Middle East parts of Central Asia
    Pastoral Nomadism
  11. Occurs densely populated East, South and SE Asia. Refers to practice of planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field
    Intensive Subsistence, wet rice dominant
  12. Occurs in a large populations area of East and South Asia where growing rice is difficult
    Intensive subsistence, crops other than rice dominant
  13. Large farm that specialized in one or two crops( Cotton Sugarcane Coffee, Rubber, Tea) Form of commercial agriculture found in the Tropics and subtopics- Latin America, Africa and Asia
    Plantation Agriculture
  14. Integrates crops and livestock- primarily US Midwest and Central Europe
    Corn in most commonly grown crop, followed by soybeans
    Most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans
    Mixed crop & livestock
  15. Most important agriculture practiced near large urban areas in MDC’s
    Dairy farms must be closer to their markets because milk is highly perishable
  16. Located in areas too dry for mixed crop and livestock farming
    Crops on a grain farm are grown primarily for consumption by humans rather than by livestock
    Most important crop-what for flour
    US is largest producer of grain, primarily in the Plains states including Oklahoma
    Grain Farming
  17. Commercial gazing of livestock over an extensive area
    Practiced on semiarid or arid lands where vegetation is too sparse and soil to poor to support crops
  18. Occurs in the Mediterranean climate- lands that border the Mediterranean Sea; California, Chile, South Africa, Eastern Australia
    Olives, grapes(wine), citrus, tomatoes are important crops
  19. Predominant type of agriculture in the US Southeast
    Long growing season and humid climates
    Grows many fruits, veggies, apples, cherries, lettuce, tomatoes
    Commercial gardening
  20. Define Desertification. Describe the major causes, its current global extent and the implications of the agricultural environmental impact. Discuss 5 major ways in which desertification can be prevented?
    Transforming arable fertile & habitable land into desert

    • Causes: (human induced)
    • Overuse/abuse of agricultural land
    • Deforestation
    • Overgrazing
    • Change in weather/drought from global climate change
    • Periods of drought worsen the problem

    • Extent:
    • World wide
    • Dust bowl US 1930s- lost over 18 inches of sop soil- erosion rates still high
    • Africa, US, Middle East, Australia, China, S America- today

    • Implications:
    • Loss of arable land
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Can’t feed populations- starvation
    • Contributed to cycle of poverty in LD’s

    • Preventions:
    • Sustainable agricultural practices
    • Conservative of land through terracing, crop rotation; intercropping; dry land farming
    • Monitoring erosions rates- developing policies to minimize erosion rates
    • Wind breaks; hedgerows; anti-sand shields
    • Addressing climates change
    • Stabilizing population
Card Set:
Human geo 3
2011-05-12 06:16:31
Human Geo

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