Lecture 4 Intensive, Psalms sutdies

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Lecture 4 Intensive, Psalms sutdies
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Lecture 4 Intensive, Psalms studies
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  1. List (in one sentence each) the four interpretive keys to the Psalms.
    • 1. Look for Hebrew parallelism
    • 2. Each Psalm must be studied as a self-contained literary unit.
    • 3.The Psalms come out of particular life settings, both personal and corporate (such as the Temple liturgy).
    • 4. The Psalms are prophetic, pointing to Jesus Christ.
  2. Recognize descriptions and examples of synonymous, antithetic and synthetic parallelism.
    • The psalms are poetic in form. They arise out of oral speech and are best known for their use of “Hebrew parallelism” in which two or three parallel phrases (members) are employed to give variations on the same theme. Below are three types of Hebrew parallelism:
    • - Synonymous parallelism
    • In synonymous parallelism, the second phrase (member) may repeat the content of the first in different words.
    • “Blessed is the man
    • who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly,
    • nor stands in the path of sinners” (Ps. 1:1).
    • -Antithetic parallelism
    • In antithetic parallelism, the second phrase (member) may contrast sharply with the first.
    • “For the Lord knows the way of the righteous,
    • but the way of the ungodly shall perish” (Ps. 1:6).
    • - Synthetic parallelism
    • In synthetic parallelism, the second phrase (member) may also take the thought further.
    • “But his delight is in the law of the Lord,
    • and in his law he meditates day and night” (Ps. 1:2).
    • With regard to the Psalms as poetry, scholars have sought to analyze some sort of metrical regularity in them but with no resulting consensus
  3. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Laments
    • Express or presuppose deep trust in Yahweh and help people express struggles, suffering or disappointment to the Lord.
    • Psalm 3 – Lament
    • Adapted from Peter C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50, Word Biblical Commentary, pp.72-75; Derek Kidner, Psalms 1-72, pp. 53-55
    • Psalm 3 is one of the fourteen Psalms that are linked to historical episodes in the life of David (3, 7, 18, 30, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142). The parallels between the historical account of David’s flight from his son Absalom, in 2 Sam. 15:13-19:2, and this Psalm may be summarized as follows:
    • Psalm Verses Episode in David’s Life 2 Samuel Verses
    • 3:1, 6 The rising tide of disloyalty 15:13
    • 3:2 The rumor that God had abandoned him 15:26; 16:7-8
    • 3:3 David’s head, covered in shame on the Mt. of Olives, will be raised by God 15:30
    • 3:5 Danger and confidence at night 17:1, 16
    • 3:6 David heavily outnumbered 15:13; 17:11
    • 3:8 Victory eventually comes 19:1-2
    • 3:1-2 ¬¬– Complaint of many enemies
    • 3:3-4 ¬¬– Confidence in God answering prayer
    • 3:5-6 ¬¬– Trust in God brings peace
    • 3:7-8 ¬¬– Invocation for God to bring victory
  4. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Thanksgiving
    • Express joy to the Lord because of something has gone well or circumstances are good, or because people have reason to thank God for his faithfulness, protection or benefit.
    • Psalm 32 – Thanksgiving
    • 32:1-2 ¬¬– Receive forgiveness
    • 32:3-5 ¬¬– Acknowledge conviction
    • 32:6-7 ¬¬– Embrace protection
    • 32:8-10 – Listen to direction
    • 32:11 – Rejoice!
  5. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Hymns of Praise
    • Center on praising God for who he is, for his greatness and goodness toward the whole earth as well as toward his people.
    • Psalm 100 – Hymn of Praise
    • J.A. Motyer, “The Psalms” in G.J. Wenham, et al eds., New Bible Commentary, p. 550, suggests the following breakdown:
    • 100:1-2 – Threefold invitation:
    • 1) Shout!
    • 2) Worship!
    • 3) Come!
    • 100:3 – Threefold affirmation: “Know”
    • 1) Yahweh, He is God!
    • 2) He made us!
    • 3) We are his!
    • 100:4 Threefold invitation:
    • 1) Enter!
    • 2) Give thanks!
    • 3) Praise!
    • 100:5 Threefold affirmation of God’s nature:
    • 1) Good
    • 2) His chesed {mercy; covenant love) is forever
    • 3) His faithfulness to all generations.
  6. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Salvation History
    • Review the history of God’s saving work among the people of Israel, especially his delivering them from bondage in Egypt and his creating them as a people.
    • Psalm 105 – Salvation History
    • Leslie Allen, PSALMS 101-150, Word Biblical Commentary, pp.35-44.
    • 105:1-11 – Exhortation to praise and its reasons
    • Exhortations, 1-6. Salvation history is warfare history, centering on the Exodus:
    • “Remember the wonders he has done, his miracles and the judgment he pronounced, O descendants of Abraham his servant, O sons of Jacob, his chosen ones” (v. 5-6).
    • Reasons, 7-11 – God is faithful in keeping his promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen. 17:8; 26:3; 28:13)
    • 105:12-23 – From Canaan to Egypt
    • God protected his people – a small minority among the nations
    • God’s faithfulness is displayed in Joseph’s path from suffering to glory
    • 105:24-36 – From bondage to deliverance in Egypt
    • Signs and wonders (v. 27) and the total devastation of Egypt
    • 105:37-45 – From Egypt to Canaan
    • God kept his promise to his people by delivering, protecting and providing for, guiding and giving them the land.
    • Appropriate response: worship and obedience
  7. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Celebration and Affirmation
    • These include several types: covenant renewal liturgies, Davidic covenant psalms, royal psalms, enthronement psalms and songs of the city of Jerusalem (Zion).
    • Psalm 110 – Celebration and Affirmation
    • 110:1-3 – The king (1st oracle)
    • v.1, “The oracle of Yahweh to my Lord”
    • 110:4 – The priest (2nd oracle)
    • “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind…”
    • 110:5-7 – The warrior
    • The significance of Psalm 110 in the New Testament
    • Jesus, Mk 12:35-37; parallel Mt. 22:44; Lk. 20:42-43
    • Ps. 110 is the most frequently cited and alluded to OT text in the NT (e.g., Acts 2:34, 35; I Cor. 15:25; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; I Pet. 3:22)
    • Hebrews 5:5-10; 6:19-7:28; cf. Gen. 14:18-20
  8. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Wisdom
    • Praise the merits of wisdom and the wise life.
    • Psalm 1 – Wisdom
    • Craigie, Psalms 1-50, pp. 57-62, points out the elaborate chiasmic structure within the Psalm and Kinder, Psalms 1-72, pp. 47-49, emphasizes the wisdom theme of “The two ways” in his outline (cf. Matt. 7:13-14).
    • The Two Ways
    • 1:1-3 – The way of life
    • 1:4-5 – The way of death
    • Chaff is the ultimate in what is rootless, weightless, and useless.
    • 1:6 – The parting of the two ways
  9. Recognize this type of Psalm and it’s example and outline:
    • Songs of trust
    • Affirm that God can be trusted and, that even in times of despair, his goodness and care for his people ought to be expressed.
    • Psalm 16 – Song of Trust
    • 16:1-6 – Single-minded servant
    • 16:1 – A plea for protection
    • 16:2-3 – Delight in Yahweh and his people
    • 16:4 – Denunciations of syncretism
    • 16:5-6 – Delight in the inheritance Yahweh has granted
    • 16:7-11 Trustworthy Lord
    • 16:7 – Praise for Yahweh’s guidance
    • 16:8 – Trust in Yahweh’s support
    • 16:9-10 – Confidence in life after death
    • 16:11 – Trusting Yahweh for eternal joy and delight
  10. Recognize the significance of Psalm 110 in the New Testament.
    • The significance of Psalm 110 in the New Testament
    • 1.Jesus, Mk 12:35-37; parallel Mt. 22:44; Lk. 20:42-4
    • 2.Ps. 110 is the most frequently cited and alluded to OT text in the NT (e.g., Acts 2:34, 35; I Cor. 15:25; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; I Pet. 3:22)
    • 3.Hebrews 5:5-10; 6:19-7:28; cf. Gen. 14:18-20

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