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- (Holo- ‘complete’, -phrastic- from‘phrase’)
- [One word stage] Children first words usually emerge around age 1.
- The first words are usually familiar objects in their world. These words could also be abstract, yet simple concepts, such as ‘more’.
- (child uses words that are to narrow) the child associates the word with a smaller set
- of meanings or objects that the term has in adult grammar.
- For example, a child may use the word ‘car’ referring to only his own toy car and not the vehicle
- that his parents drive.
- (child uses words that are too broad) Also know as overgeneralization, have the opposite effect. Children overgeneralize a word by associating it with a broader range of meanings than the term has in adult language. For example, if ‘doggie’ in a child’s lexicon refers to all 4 legged animals, then
- sheep, horse, lion, etc. will also be called ‘doggie’ by that child.
What are the differences between acquiring and learning a language?
Children acquire their first language.
- Subconscious process
- Unaware of the properties of the language
- Through communication
We learn our second language.
- Conscious process
- Taught the properties of the language
What are the features of the different stages of language development?
0-5 months cooing
5-12 months babbling
1 year one-word stage
18 months -2 years two-word stage
2+ years telegraphic speech
6 years adult language
3 different theories of language development and their main arguments
Empiricist: language is learned through environmental stimulus and behavior response.
Nativist: Innate(natural) linguistic knowledge.
Constructive: proposes that children acquire language by exposure to their linguistic environment, and in a piece-meal fashion.
What is critical period hypothesis ?
Lennenberg (1967) suggested that language can be developed fully, only if it is learned before puberty.