Card Set Information
acne is characterised by 2 things…?
what are the main causes of acne? - disease process
increased keratin causes obstruction of sebaceous glands results in comedone formation
androgens induce sebaceous gland to produce more sebum
the duct gets colonised with p-acnes due to altered environment
how can the severity of acne be graded?
1. clinical appearance
2. how many spots
4. how long has it been there for
5. how much is it affecting life
what is the most common type of acne?
which areas of the body does acne affect?
(the comedogenic areas)
what is a comedone?
plug of sebum and keratin over a hair follicle
can be open = blackhead
closed = whitehead (remains white as oxygen couldn't get in to oxidise it)
who does acne vulgaris affect more?
adolescents - puberty
can have familial tendency
why should acne be treated promptly?
to avoid scarring and post inflammatory pigmentation
what 4 aspects does acne treatment need to target?
what are the 3 general topical Rx for acne?
: kills microorganisms and dries skin
: kills organs and reduce inflame response
: normalise desquamation + reduce inflame response
what are the 3 main categories of systemic Rx for acne?
what 4 ways can acne affect someone psychologicaly?
low self esteem
poor inter-personal relationships
what are the 2 main classifications of acne?
mild, mod, severe
comedonal, inflammatory, mixed
what is the 1st choice drug for comedonal acne?
: vitamin A derivative that are anti-inflamm and comedolytic
eg adapalene or tretinoin
how does benzoyl peroxide work?
what is Rx of mild papular-pustular acne - ie INFLAMMATORY
topical retinoids eg adapalene
topical antimicrobial eg benzoyl peroxide or antibiotics eg erythromycin/clindamycin
what is Rx of moderate inflammatory acne?
ORAL antibiotics eg tetracyclines - minocycline, lymecycline
what 2 things do you have to remember with tetracycline?
absorption reduced by milk and antacids
can cause photosensitivity so use at night
what is the alternative oral Rx for females with moderate acne?
dianette - cyproterone acetate + oestradiol
use if evidence of hyperandrogenism eg PCOS
what is Rx of severe acne?
ORAL isotretinoin - roaccutane
what are SE of oral isotretinoin?
dry kin especially on the face
what do you have to ensure when prescribing oral isotretinoin to a woman?
ask if pregnant
do pregnancy test
must use both hormonal and barrier method of contraception
what is rosacea? features
skin disorder characterised by facial FLUSHING, persistent erythema, inflammatory papules, pustules, oedema, telangiectasia
what is rosacea associated with?
rhinophyma after chronic - thick, hypertrophic nasal skin
what exacerbates rosacea?
hot drinks/food, spicy food, alcohol
what is Rx of rosacea?
avoid soaps and cleansers
azelaic acid cream - finacea