Chapter 1 vocabulary part 2

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Chapter 1 vocabulary part 2
2011-05-12 16:25:55
Ace essentials exercise science

Human anatomy
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  1. Pyloric sphincter
    Separates the stomach from the small intestines
  2. Vitamins
    An organic micronutrient that is essential for the normal physiologic function.
  3. Minerals
    Inorganic substances needed in the diet in small amounts to help regulate bodily functions
  4. Duodenum
    The top portion of the small intestine
  5. Jejenum
    One of three segments of the small intestine
  6. Ilieum
    One of three sections of the small intestine
  7. Bile
    A greenish-yellow or brownish emulsifier that prepared fats and oils for digestion; produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine
  8. Villi
    Finger-like projections from the folds of the small intestines.
  9. Microvilli
    Tiny hair-like projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells for absoption
  10. Colon
    The lower portion of the large intestine, the primary function of which is to absorb water; its segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, and the sigmoid colon
  11. Electrolytes
    A mineral that exists as a charged ion in the body and that is extremely important for normal cellular function
  12. Glucose
    A simple sugar; the form in which all carbohydrates are used as the body's principal energy source.
  13. Hemopoiesis
    The formation of blood cells
  14. Articulation
    A joint
  15. Cortical bone
    Compact, dense bone that is found in the shafts of long bones and the vertebral endplates.
  16. Trabecular bone
    Spongy or cancellous bone composed of thin plates that form a honeycomb pattern; predominantly found in the ends of long bones and the vertebral bodies
  17. Tendon
    A band of fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching the muscle to a bone.
  18. Osteoperosis
    A disorder, primarily affecting postmenopausal women, in which the bone density decreases and susceptibility to fractures increases
  19. Diaphysis
    The shaft of a long bone
  20. Epiphysis
    The end of a long bone, usually wider than the shaft
  21. Endosteum
    A soft tissue lining the internal surface of the diaphysis on a long bone
  22. Epiphyseal cartilage
    Cartilaginous layer between the head and shaft of a long bone where bone growth occurs. Also called a growth plate.
  23. Periosteum
    A double-layered connective tissue sheath surrounding the outer surface of the diaphysis of a long bone; serves to cover and nourish the bone
  24. Osteoblasts
    A bone forming cell
  25. Osteoclast
    A cell that reabsorbs or erodes bone mineral
  26. Wolff's Law
    A principle stating that bone is capable of increasing its strength in response to stress(eg. exercise) by lating down more bone
  27. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    The brain and spinal chord
  28. Ligaments
    A strong, fibrous tissue that connects one bone to another
  29. Axis of rotation
    The imaginary line or point about which an object, such as a joint, rotates.
  30. Circumduction
    A biplanar movement involving the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction.
  31. Flexion
    The act of moving a joint so that the two bones forming it are brought closer together
  32. Extension
    The act of straightening or extending a joint, usually applied to the muscular movement of a limb.
  33. Abduction
    Movement away from the midline of the body
  34. Adduction
    Movement toward the midline of the body
  35. Pronation
    Internal rotation of a forearm causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna and the palm to face posteriorly.
  36. Supination
    External rotation of the forearm (radioulnar joint) that causes the palm to face anteriorly.
  37. Inversion
    Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface inward
  38. Eversion
    Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface outward.
  39. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    The parts of the nervous system that are outside the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
  40. Ganglia
    A group of nerve cell bodies usually located in the peripheral nervous system.
  41. Foramina
    Holes or openings in a bone or between body cavities.
  42. Fasciae
    Strong connective tissues that perform a number of functions, including developing and isolating the muscles of the body and providing structural support and protection.
  43. Somatic Nervous System
    Division of the peripheral nervous system that conducts signals from sensory receptors to the central nervous system (efferent signal) and signals from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles (afferent signals).
  44. Autonomic nervous system
    The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions, including the activity of the cardiac muscle, smooth muscles, and glands. It has two division: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
  45. Parasympathetic nervous system
    A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that is involved in regulating the routine functions of the body, such as heartbeat, digestion, and sleeping Opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system (eg. stimulates digestive secretions, slows the hear, constricts the pupils, dilated blood vessels)
  46. Sympathetic nervous system
    A branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal. Opposes the physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system (eg. reduces digestive secretions, speeds the heart, contracts blood vessels)