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What are the characteristics of professionalism?
Commitment to learners, Reflective practice, Decision making, Professional knowledge
What are the different kinds of knowledge professional teachers possess?
- What (content knowledge)
- How (pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge)
- Who (knowledge of learners and the ways they learn)
What are the roles that professional teachers play?
- Content expert
- Instructional expert
What is educational psychology?
- 1)A scientific discipline that applies psychological theories, methods, and findings to the study of learning and teaching.
- 2)It consists of priciples and theories borrowed from other disciplines as well as own theories derived from research.
- 3)It provides research-based knowledge and classroom strategies to help teachers develp their professionalism.
Who is the "Father of Education Psychology"?
What are the three basic types of research studies?
What is a descriptive study?
- The collection of detailed information to describe a variable of interest.
- A variable is any characteristic, event, situation, behavior that changes or varies.
- No intervention or manipulation of observed phenomenon.
What is a correlational study?
Most frequently used research method in educational psychology that identifies relationships between variables as they naturally occur.
What is a correlation coefficient?
- 1)Statistical description of how two variables are related.
- 2)Number that ranges between –1.00 and +1.00.
- 3)Positive correlations show a direct relationship between the variables.
- 4)Negative correlations show an indirect or inverse relationship.
What is an experimental study?
Research method in which variables are manipulated (controlled) in order to measure the effects of one variable on another.
What are independent variables?
Variables that change or are manipulated.
What are dependent variables?
Variables that are affected by the independent variable.
What is the experimental group?
Receives the independent variable or treatment.
What is the control group?
Is not given the independent variable or treatment.
What is action research?
- A systematic study of an issue or problem in one’s own situation (classroom) with the goal of bringing about more productive outcomes.
- Allows teachers to be reflective practitioners.
What factors cause development?
- Maturation (nature, heredity)
- Learning (nurture, environment)
What are three important characteristics of development?
- Development is orderly and somewhat predictable.
- Development is for the most part gradual and takes time.
- Development occurs at different rates.
How do scientists study development?
- Longitudinal studies
- Cross-sectional studies
What is cognitive development?
Describes how thinking or mental skills/abilities change over time.
Who is Jean Piaget?
an important cognitive development theorist
What elements are necessary for development to occur in Piaget's theory?
- 1)Biological maturation – changes in brain structures are necessary to perform some types of cognitive tasks.
- 2)Physical activity – child must act on the world (observe, explore, manipulate) in order for thought to develop.
- 3)Organization - children organize information into units called schemes.
- 4)Adaptation – the process of adjusting schemes to maintain an equilibrium. Adaptation is achieved through assimilation and accommodation.
- 5)Assimilation and accommodation – the two reciprocal processes that allow children to grow and adapt to their environment.
- 6)Equilibration – the need to understand or the drive to maintain a balance or equilibrium between what one knows and new information which is necessary for cognitive growth to occur.
- 7)Cognitive conflict – creating a discrepancy between new information and current knowledge motivates children to accommodate and acquire more complex thought.
What is equilibrium?
A balance between what one already knows and new information or experiences
What is assimilation?
A form of adaptation in which an experience in the environment is incorporated into an existing scheme. It involves relating a new experience to something you already know.
What is accomodation?
A form of adaptation in which an existing scheme is modified and a new one created in response to experience.
What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
- Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
- Pre-operational (2 to 7 years)
- Concrete operational (7 to 11 years)
- Formal operational (12+ years)
What is the sensorimeter stage?
- The child experiences the world through the senses and physical activity.
- Physical schemes develop and become goal-directed.
- The child begins to understand cause-effect relationships.
- The child acquires the concept of object permanence or the understanding that objects continue to exist (are permanent) even when the child cannot see them.
- The child begins to acquire the ability to imitate or learn by observing others.
What is the Pre-operational stage?
- Perception dominates children’s thinking.
- Children expand on their use of symbols, called the semiotic or symbolic function.
- Children are able to perform mental actions or operations on symbols which is thinking.
- Children begin acquiring concrete concepts.
Pre-operational thought is limited by what two things?
- Lack of conservation
Why can’t pre-operational children conserve?
- 1)Centration – tendency to focus on perceptually dominant aspect of the object or event and disregarding other important aspects.
- 2)Transformation – the ability to mentally record process of moving from one state to the next.
- 3)Reversibility - the ability to go back and move from an existing state to a previous state.
- 4)Classification of objects
- 5)Animism – giving human characteristics to inanimate objects.
- 6)Transductive reasoning – illogical reasoning based on coincidence or personal beliefs. Cause and effect relationship based on simple occurrence of events together in time and space.
What are the major cognitive changes in the concrete operational stage?
- 1)Loss of egocentric thinking
- 2)Ability to conserve
- 3)Ability to classify or group objects based on multiple common characteristics.
- 4)Ability to seriate or order objects by length, weight, or volume.
- 5)Ability to understand transitivity.
- 6)Ability to engage in logical inductive and deductive reasoning or draw a logical inference from two or more pieces of information.
What are limitations of concrete thought?
- Inability to deal with abstract, and contrary to fact (hypothetical) ideas.
- Can only think logically about concrete objects and problems that are realistic.
- Inability to systematically test all solutions to a problem.
What are the major cognitive changes in the formal operational stage?
- Ability to reason about abstract, hypothetical, contrary-to-fact ideas/situations.
- Engage in metacognition or an awareness of one’s own thinking processes/strategies.
- Systematically test hypotheses by separating and controlling variables.
What are some criticisms of Piaget’s theory?
- Development does not always fall into distinct stages.
- Underestimation of younger children’s thinking abilities.
- Overestimation of adult thinking.
- Did not take into account cultural variations.
- Underestimated the influence of instruction, prior knowledge and experiences in accelerating development.
What are some examples of scaffolding?
- Reminders or cues
- Demonstration of proper performance
- Developing a plan to accomplish a task
- Breaking a complex tasks into smaller steps
- Focus questions
- Feedback on performance
- Collaborative learning
What are examples of applying Vygotsky's theory to teaching?
- Developmentally appropriate tasks – activities within the child’s ZPD.
- Assisted learning – providing help or scaffolding in the initial stages of learning and then gradually lessen the scaffolding as students become more proficient.
- Collaboration – providing opportunities to interact and learn from others.
What is personal development?
identity formation or acquiring a sense of self, who you are, what you want to be and do in life.
Who are important theorists in personal development?
Erik Erikson, James Marcia, and David Elkind
How do parents influence personal development?
Parenting style or general patterns of interacting with and disciplining children can have an influence on self esteem, motivation, and achievement.
What are the four parenting styles?
What is Erikson’s psychosocial theory of personal development?
- Wrote "Childhood and Society" in 1963 where he discussed how personality develops according to how one interacts with the environment.
- Personality develops through eight stages or critical periods.
- At each stage a conflict is encountered that can be resolved in a positive or negative way.
- How conflicts are resolved has a lasting effect on one’s sense of self and one’s view of the surrounding world.
- Conflicts are resolved based upon social interactions.
What are the assumptions involved in Erickson's theory?
- 1)People have the same basic needs.
- 2)The development of ego or self occurs in response to those needs.
- 3)Development proceeds in stages.
- 4)Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge, or crisis, that presents opportunities for development.
- 5)Different stages reflect differences in motivation of the individual.
What are the corollaries involved in Erickson's theory?
- 1)Although all people pass through all the stages, the rate and intensity may vary among individuals.
- 2)No one permanently resolves a crisis. Each conflict exists in some form throughout life but is at a critical period at its specific stage.
- 3)People do not remain at a certain stage if the crisis at that stage isn't positively resolved.
- 4)Less than ideal resolutions of crises at particular stages leave individuals with personality imperfections or "glitches".
- 5)The effectiveness of the conflict resolution at each stage determines the overall health of an individual's personality.
What are Erikson’s stages of personal development?
- 1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year) – developing trust based on basic needs being met.
- 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years) – developing self-control and self confidence.
- 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 6 years) – testing of personal power through exploration and manipulation of the environment.
- 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 to 12 years) – completing productive work.
- 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 to 18 years) – attempting to achieve a sense of identity or “Who Am I”.
- 6. Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) – establishing close relationships with others.
- 7. Generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood) - giving to society through parenting, productive work.
- 8. Integrity vs. despair (old age) – fulfilled goals, lived as well as possible, accept mortality.
What is the self-concept?
A person’s self-concept is made up of an academic self concept (intelligence) physical self-concept (physical attractiveness, athleticism) and social self-concept (popularity).
What is self-esteem?
Self-esteem is a person’s emotional reaction to or evaluation of the self.
What are some ways to reduce social comparison?
- Grading and Evaluation
What is moral development?
acquiring a sense of right and wrong and pro-social skills such as honesty, empathy, responsibility, and integrity.
Who are some important theorists in moral development?
Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan, and Thomas Lickona
What is Piaget’s view of moral development?
- Stage 1 - External morality or moral realism stage (up to age 10) (Rules are absolute and cannot be changed, Consequences more important than intentions, Reflects concrete nature of children’s thinking abilities.)
- Stage 2 - Autonomous morality or morality of cooperation (10 years and above) (Rules can be changed for common good, Intentions more important than consequences, Fairness and justice are concepts used to make moral decisions, Children begin to be responsible and regulate their own moral behavior, Reflects abstract, logical characteristics of children’s thinking.)
What is Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development?
Moral reasoning is a reflection of and is determined by level of cognitive ability and his stages of moral development correspond to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development- used moral dilimmas without a right or wrong answer to measure moral reasoning.
What are Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development?
- Pre-conventional level
- Conventional level
- Post-conventional level
What are some criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory?
- Young children can often reason about moral situations in more sophisticated ways than a stage theory would suggest.
- Kohlberg’s theory is based on research with male subjects (Gilligan’s theory).
- There can be differences between moral reasoning and moral behavior (lying, cheating, stealing, bullying).
What is Gilligan’s view of moral development?
- Moral development in females different than in males.
- Females are socialized to take care of others and moral development in females is based on compassion and caring for those in need.
- Males base moral decisions on maintaining justice while females define morality in terms of quality of relationships.
What are Thomas Lickona’s strategies for developing character and moral behavior?
- 1)Help students develop a good self concept.
- 2)Be a good role model.
- 3)Create a moral community.
- 4)Teach character through curriculum.
- 5)Develop the “conscience of craft”.
- 6)Use cooperative learning in the classroom.
- 7)Provide opportunities for moral reflection.
- 8)Get students involved in decision-making.
What are Goleman’s six skills necessary for high EQ (emotional intelligence)?
- Managing emotions
- Resolving conflicts
What is adolescent identity formation according to Erickson?
identity vs. role confusion is the psychosocial crisis that must is encountered during adolescence.
What is involved in adolescent identity formation?
- Marcia’s theory of identity formation
- Adolescent egocentrism and risk taking behavior
What is Marcia’s theory of identity formation?
- Identity diffusion- not sure who they are, what they wanna become, no firm direction, confused
- Identity foreclosure- accept another persons goals or values without exploring yourself. Ie- being a doctor cuz their parents want them to
- Identity moratorium- exploration phase, suspend choices for careers, testing different things,
- Identity achievement- have explored and have selected own career choice and moral choices
What is adolescent egocentrism?
- Imaginary audience – everyone is watching.
- Personal fable – their feelings are unique.