Bio Exam #3
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DNA fingerprinting is used to:
compare DNA patterns
Combining DNA from two
different sources result in:
Which of the following
local crops will not be genetically engineered in Hawaii:
Gene guns are used to:
- Shoot gold pellets coated with DNA or RNA into
Golden Rice has been
genetically engineered to include
More vitamin A
Genetic engineering is:
- Direct manipulation of genes, involves insertion of
- genetic material from 1 organism to another, and results in recombinant DNA
“GMO” stands for:
- Genetically Modified
Antisense DNA or RNA is:
DNA/RNA that turns OFF genes
The European Corn Borer is
a major pest of corn, which can be controlled with BT toxin made from:
Corn - Soil Bacterium
In the 1990s on the Big
Island, what lethal disease was destroying a major crop?
A University of New Mexico
study found that most Americans did not know they had been eating _________ for
over five years.
What genetically modified
corn variety was only supposed to be used for animal feed, but turned up in
BT corn pollen was shown by
entomologist John Losey to be lethal to:
Caterpillars - Monarch Butterfly
The corn crop of Mexico
grows very poorly because of:
The following organization
is against the growing of genetically modified crops:
- ELF (Earth Liberation
The first genetically
modified animal to be commercially marketed will probably be
Embryonic stem cells for
therapy may be made by:
Extracting from discarded embryos?
At what stage of
development are embryonic stem cells obtained:
- Blastocyst - Embryonic
Which type of stem cells
reside in differentiated cells: Specialized cells that perform specific
functions and can no longer divide
Adult stem cells
Before cell reprogramming breakthrough,
federal funds could only be spent on:
Human embryonic cell research that already existed
Who first made human
embryonic stem cell lines
Which of the following
diseases can be treated using stem cells:
- Leukemia, tissue repair, heart disease, cancer,
- arthritis, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease
Which country leads the
world in stem cell research:
Which of the following are
types of adult stem cell:
- Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found
- in adult tissues, a living embryo is NOT required, and scientists currently
- believe adult stem cells are more “plastic” and not as useful as embryonic stem
- cells - Found in brain, heart, skin, muscle, bone marrow
Where is adaptive radiation
most commonly found:
- Distant islands, high mountain tops, some lakes,
- and deep water thermal vents - In remote and isolated areas
Darwin’s finches are an
example of this type of speciation:
Which of the following
would be an example of adaptive radiation:
- Silverswords and lobelioids, honeycreepers, land
- snails, and many insects ALL in Hawaii.
- This is when species form at the same time and
- place (ex: Cichlids in Lake Malawi). Also contradicts the ecological concept to
- a certain extent.
Which of the following is
included in the definition of species: Definition
- An interbreeding natural population that produce
- fertile offspring. Also reproductively isolated from other populations.
- “Ontogeny”: Development of organism. “Phylogeny”:
- Evolution. This quote is an attempt to explain similarities between humans and
A species concept that
species are reproductively isolated is known as:
Mules are not a true
- Mules (which are a hybrid of donkey and horse) are
- sterile, meaning they cannot reproduce.
What is a biological
Invasive species that may cause environmental harm
What is a consequence of
invasive species on native plant species:
- Invasive plants affect hydrology (water flow),
- alter nutrient cycling, and disrupt ecosystem processes
How are oceans impacted by
- restructure the food web, introduce diseases, and
- compete with and prey on native organisms. They can also impact humans by
- destroying populations of commercially-valuable native species
- High reproduction, rapid growth, and significant
- defense mechanisms
Why are invasive species
successful in new environments:
- Free of predators, competition, diseases,
- parasites, and has more resources for growth and reproduction (exploits
- resources in novel ways)
What is a naturalized
- A plant introduced into an area as opposed to being
- indigenous. An established self-perpetuating population. -Widespread dispersal
- & incorporation into native flora/ecosystem.
Why is Hawaii particularly
at risk from biological invaders:
- International port city, about 7-9 million tourist
- visit annually
- 80% of consumed goods, vulnerable to invasive species
Most common way alien
plants are introduced to Hawaii today:
- : Dispersed by humans
- across natural barriers and long distances (accidental or deliberate). Began
- with plants & animals were introduced by Polynesians, Europeans &
- Americans, Ornamental plant trade, Wooden pallets carrying wood boring insects,
- and Yearly imports of Christmas trees.
Biodiversity is defined as:
- Number & variety of organisms found within an
75% of Hawaii’s flowering
plant species arrived by:
Birds (Wing), 75% (internally or externally)
Hawaiian honey creepers
primarily differ by the shape and size of their:
Bills or beaks
The process whereby many
species evolve from a single species:
There are about ___ native
flowering plant species in Hawaii and a thousand introduced ones that are now:
980 native flowering plants, naturalized
Native habitats in hawaii
have been lost due to:
- Crop lands, Cattle grazing, Feral animals, Cattle,
- Pigs, Goats, Sheep, Deer, Urbanization
Alien species may be
- Control of alien species: Fencing Biological
- control Weeding Herbicide Hunting Habitat Restoration
Native species that are
only found in Hawaii are ___, while those found elsewhere are:
Why is conservation biology
described as a "crisis discipline"?
- Emerged in the 1980’s as response to
- biodiversity crisis. Does not have the luxury of time.
The Endangered Species Act
was created in?
Listing species as
Endangered is based upon:
- Decision is to be based on
- best scientific data available and not economics. Listing of critical habitat
- decision can be based on economics.
IUCN stands for
- International Union for the Conservation of Nature
- and Natural Resources.
Conservation biology is
considered a synthetic field because:
- A synthetic field. A mixture of applied and
- theoretical fields. -It is a mixture of applied and theoretical fields
A species that is likely to
become endangered in the near future is called?
What is IUCN Red List?
- List of threatened species -Provides
- taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are
- facing a high risk of global extinction.
What is likely to become
the greatest environmental problem next century:
Fresh water supply
How do superior bacteria
- Overuse of antibiotics leads to evolution of super
Why is it hard to treat the
- -Replicates in the nose. -More than100
- Rhinoviruses. -Impossible to make vaccines against all viruses due to rapid
What missing protein leads
Lack of insulin production.
A benign tumor:
- -Not cancerous -Can be surgically removed
- -Usually does not return -Does not spread to other
Cancer can be caused by
which of the following?
- Over stimulated cell division, recognition of
- “braking signal” to stop is ignored.
Which of the following may
result in Cancer?
- 98% of cancers are known to be or suspected to be
- associated with environmental or lifestyle factors. -Viruses, Air pollution:
- Tobacco, Industrial emissions, Fires, Sunburn, Organic Compounds, Hydrogen,
- coal tar, etc. - uncontrolled cell division, cancer cell undergoes
- repeated division and no differentiation
Which of the following are
treatment options for cancers?
- Surgery, Radiation,
Normal genes that inhibit
cell division are called?
tumor suppressor genes
The problem with
scientists’ conclusions when studying history is:
- Historians' main task is to interpret and explain
- the past– Richard Rathman (Dept. of History, UH Mānoa). -Scientists attempt to
- “predict” the past. Often attributing events or trends to a single phenomenon,
- i.e. Caporael’s witchcraft interpretation.
LInda Carporael believed
that the incidents that led to the Salem witch trial of 1692 was due to:
- Victims of witchcraft, in Salem, MA, in 1692
- actually due to ergotism: -Conclusion based on symptoms of victims. -Victim’s
- thought to be possessed.
What is Holy Fire or St.
The Acronym LSD stands for:
- LysergSaure-Diethylamid, German name of Lysergic
- Acid Diethylamide.
Albert Hofman was:
- Albert Hofmann synthesized LSD-25, in 1938, from
- lysergic acid isolated from ergot. -First documented experience with LSD.
How did LSD become a
- Came about from CIA project: MKULTRA, shortly after
- WWII. -Code name for a covert, illegal CIA human research program
Acid Rock is thought to:
Rock music that simulates the LSD experience.
LSD was, in part,
- revolution of music? - fashion
Biologists tried to attract
the rare Kauai o'o by using:
mating calls on a tape recorder
The Hawaiian carnivorous
turned into a moth
Who won the battle between
the ant and the carnivorous caterpillar?
Species extinctions were
described in the movie as
popping rivets on spaceship Earth.
Biologists are pollinating
plants on Molokai's sea cliffs because what pollinator had gone extinct:
- because there was only one
- bird whose beak could fit in the flower, and it has gone extinct,
Of all the scourges of the
native Hawaiian rainforest the worst is the:
feathers were used to make:
What percentage of native
Hawaiian birds are now extinct?
According to the movie the
most vulnerable part of the earth is its:
Ice cores from glaciers can
be used to determine the ___ at the time the ice was formed:
According to the movie, the
ten hottest years on record have occurred during the last ___.
The melting of the ice caps
in the North and South Poles was likened to:
Warming areas around ice which speeds it up
An increase in the global
mean temperatures of 5 degrees would result in a ___ increase at the
If the ice caps in
Greenland melted completely, sea level would rise by:
The only two developed
countries that have not signed the international treaty to limit carbon
dioxide emissions into the atmosphere are:
United States and Australia
In the next 50 years the
carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere will:
- Current energy use coupled
- with increasing demand are likely to cause CO2 atmospheric concentrations to
- more than double in the next 50 years
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