Bio Exam #3

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chanelpc
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85477
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Bio Exam #3
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2011-05-12 16:34:01
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  1. DNA fingerprinting is used to:
    compare DNA patterns
  2. Combining DNA from two
    different sources result in:
    Rcombinant DNA
  3. Which of the following
    local crops will not be genetically engineered in Hawaii:
    Hawaiian Taro
  4. Gene guns are used to:
    • Shoot gold pellets coated with DNA or RNA into
    • cells
  5. Golden Rice has been
    genetically engineered to include
    More vitamin A
  6. Genetic engineering is:
    • Direct manipulation of genes, involves insertion of
    • genetic material from 1 organism to another, and results in recombinant DNA
  7. “GMO” stands for:
    • Genetically Modified
    • Organism
  8. Antisense DNA or RNA is:
    DNA/RNA that turns OFF genes
  9. The European Corn Borer is
    a major pest of corn, which can be controlled with BT toxin made from:
    Corn - Soil Bacterium
  10. In the 1990s on the Big
    Island, what lethal disease was destroying a major crop?
    Ringspot Virus
  11. A University of New Mexico
    study found that most Americans did not know they had been eating _________ for
    over five years.
    GMO Products
  12. What genetically modified
    corn variety was only supposed to be used for animal feed, but turned up in
    human foods?
    StarLink
  13. BT corn pollen was shown by
    entomologist John Losey to be lethal to:
    Caterpillars - Monarch Butterfly
  14. The corn crop of Mexico
    grows very poorly because of:
    Toxic Aluminum
  15. The following organization
    is against the growing of genetically modified crops:
    • ELF (Earth Liberation
    • Front)
  16. The first genetically
    modified animal to be commercially marketed will probably be
    Salmon
  17. Embryonic stem cells for
    therapy may be made by:
    Extracting from discarded embryos?
  18. At what stage of
    development are embryonic stem cells obtained:
    • Blastocyst - Embryonic
    • stage
  19. Which type of stem cells
    reside in differentiated cells: Specialized cells that perform specific
    functions and can no longer divide
    Adult stem cells
  20. Before cell reprogramming breakthrough,
    federal funds could only be spent on:
    Human embryonic cell research that already existed
  21. Who first made human
    embryonic stem cell lines
    James Thomson
  22. Which of the following
    diseases can be treated using stem cells:
    • Leukemia, tissue repair, heart disease, cancer,
    • arthritis, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease
  23. Which country leads the
    world in stem cell research:
    China
  24. Which of the following are
    types of adult stem cell:
    • Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found
    • in adult tissues, a living embryo is NOT required, and scientists currently
    • believe adult stem cells are more “plastic” and not as useful as embryonic stem
    • cells - Found in brain, heart, skin, muscle, bone marrow
  25. Where is adaptive radiation
    most commonly found:
    • Distant islands, high mountain tops, some lakes,
    • and deep water thermal vents - In remote and isolated areas
  26. Darwin’s finches are an
    example of this type of speciation:
    Allopatric speciation
  27. Which of the following
    would be an example of adaptive radiation:
    • Silverswords and lobelioids, honeycreepers, land
    • snails, and many insects ALL in Hawaii.
  28. Sympatric speciation
    • This is when species form at the same time and
    • place (ex: Cichlids in Lake Malawi). Also contradicts the ecological concept to
    • a certain extent.
  29. Which of the following is
    included in the definition of species: Definition
    • An interbreeding natural population that produce
    • fertile offspring. Also reproductively isolated from other populations.
  30. “Ontogeny Recapitulates
    Phylogeny”:
    • “Ontogeny”: Development of organism. “Phylogeny”:
    • Evolution. This quote is an attempt to explain similarities between humans and
    • animals.
  31. A species concept that
    species are reproductively isolated is known as:
    Biological concept
  32. Mules are not a true
    species because
    • Mules (which are a hybrid of donkey and horse) are
    • sterile, meaning they cannot reproduce.
  33. What is a biological
    invader:
    Invasive species that may cause environmental harm
  34. What is a consequence of
    invasive species on native plant species:
    • Invasive plants affect hydrology (water flow),
    • alter nutrient cycling, and disrupt ecosystem processes
  35. How are oceans impacted by
    invasive species:
    • restructure the food web, introduce diseases, and
    • compete with and prey on native organisms. They can also impact humans by
    • destroying populations of commercially-valuable native species
  36. Invasive plants’
    characteristics:
    • High reproduction, rapid growth, and significant
    • defense mechanisms
  37. Why are invasive species
    successful in new environments:
    • Free of predators, competition, diseases,
    • parasites, and has more resources for growth and reproduction (exploits
    • resources in novel ways)
  38. What is a naturalized
    plant:
    • A plant introduced into an area as opposed to being
    • indigenous. An established self-perpetuating population. -Widespread dispersal
    • & incorporation into native flora/ecosystem.
  39. Why is Hawaii particularly
    at risk from biological invaders:
    • International port city, about 7-9 million tourist
    • visit annually
    • Import
    • 80% of consumed goods, vulnerable to invasive species
  40. Most common way alien
    plants are introduced to Hawaii today:
    • : Dispersed by humans
    • across natural barriers and long distances (accidental or deliberate). Began
    • with plants & animals were introduced by Polynesians, Europeans &
    • Americans, Ornamental plant trade, Wooden pallets carrying wood boring insects,
    • and Yearly imports of Christmas trees.
  41. Biodiversity is defined as:
    • Number & variety of organisms found within an
    • area
  42. 75% of Hawaii’s flowering
    plant species arrived by:
    Birds (Wing), 75% (internally or externally)
  43. Hawaiian honey creepers
    primarily differ by the shape and size of their:
    Bills or beaks
  44. The process whereby many
    species evolve from a single species:
    adaptive radiation
  45. There are about ___ native
    flowering plant species in Hawaii and a thousand introduced ones that are now:
    980 native flowering plants, naturalized
  46. Native habitats in hawaii
    have been lost due to:
    • Crop lands, Cattle grazing, Feral animals, Cattle,
    • Pigs, Goats, Sheep, Deer, Urbanization
  47. Alien species may be
    controlled by:
    • Control of alien species: Fencing Biological
    • control Weeding Herbicide Hunting Habitat Restoration
  48. Native species that are
    only found in Hawaii are ___, while those found elsewhere are:
    endemic, indigenous
  49. Why is conservation biology
    described as a "crisis discipline"?
    • Emerged in the 1980’s as response to
    • biodiversity crisis. Does not have the luxury of time.
  50. The Endangered Species Act
    was created in?
    1973
  51. Listing species as
    Endangered is based upon:
    • Decision is to be based on
    • best scientific data available and not economics. Listing of critical habitat
    • decision can be based on economics.
  52. IUCN stands for
    • International Union for the Conservation of Nature
    • and Natural Resources.
  53. Conservation biology is
    considered a synthetic field because:
    • A synthetic field. A mixture of applied and
    • theoretical fields. -It is a mixture of applied and theoretical fields
  54. A species that is likely to
    become endangered in the near future is called?
    Threatend
  55. What is IUCN Red List?
    • List of threatened species -Provides
    • taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are
    • facing a high risk of global extinction.
  56. What is likely to become
    the greatest environmental problem next century:
    Fresh water supply
  57. How do superior bacteria
    arise?
    • Overuse of antibiotics leads to evolution of super
    • bacteria.
  58. Why is it hard to treat the
    common cold?
    • -Replicates in the nose. -More than100
    • Rhinoviruses. -Impossible to make vaccines against all viruses due to rapid
    • mutation.
  59. What missing protein leads
    to diabetes?
    Lack of insulin production.
  60. A benign tumor:
    • -Not cancerous -Can be surgically removed
    • -Usually does not return -Does not spread to other
    • tissues
  61. Cancer can be caused by
    which of the following?
    • Over stimulated cell division, recognition of
    • “braking signal” to stop is ignored.
  62. Which of the following may
    result in Cancer?
    • 98% of cancers are known to be or suspected to be
    • associated with environmental or lifestyle factors. -Viruses, Air pollution:
    • Tobacco, Industrial emissions, Fires, Sunburn, Organic Compounds, Hydrogen,
    • coal tar, etc. - uncontrolled cell division, cancer cell undergoes
    • repeated division and no differentiation
  63. Which of the following are
    treatment options for cancers?
    • Surgery, Radiation,
    • Chemotherapy
  64. Normal genes that inhibit
    cell division are called?
    tumor suppressor genes
  65. The problem with
    scientists’ conclusions when studying history is:
    • Historians' main task is to interpret and explain
    • the past– Richard Rathman (Dept. of History, UH Mà„noa). -Scientists attempt to
    • “predict” the past. Often attributing events or trends to a single phenomenon,
    • i.e. Caporael’s witchcraft interpretation.
  66. LInda Carporael believed
    that the incidents that led to the Salem witch trial of 1692 was due to:
    -Caporael (1976):
    • Victims of witchcraft, in Salem, MA, in 1692
    • actually due to ergotism: -Conclusion based on symptoms of victims. -Victim’s
    • thought to be possessed.
  67. What is Holy Fire or St.
    Anthony’s Fire?
    Gangrenous Ergotism
  68. The Acronym LSD stands for:
    • LysergSaure-Diethylamid, German name of Lysergic
    • Acid Diethylamide.
  69. Albert Hofman was:
    • Albert Hofmann synthesized LSD-25, in 1938, from
    • lysergic acid isolated from ergot. -First documented experience with LSD.
  70. MKULTRA was:

    How did LSD become a
    recreational drug?
    • Came about from CIA project: MKULTRA, shortly after
    • WWII. -Code name for a covert, illegal CIA human research program
  71. Acid Rock is thought to:
    Rock music that simulates the LSD experience.
  72. LSD was, in part,
    responsible for:
    • revolution of music? - fashion
    • industry
  73. Biologists tried to attract
    the rare Kauai o'o by using:
    mating calls on a tape recorder
  74. The Hawaiian carnivorous
    caterpillar
    turned into a moth
  75. Who won the battle between
    the ant and the carnivorous caterpillar?
    ants
  76. Species extinctions were
    described in the movie as
    popping rivets on spaceship Earth.
  77. Biologists are pollinating
    plants on Molokai's sea cliffs because what pollinator had gone extinct:
    • because there was only one
    • bird whose beak could fit in the flower, and it has gone extinct,
  78. Of all the scourges of the
    native Hawaiian rainforest the worst is the:
    Feral pig
  79. Approximately 80,000
    feathers were used to make:
    Ali'i capes
  80. What percentage of native
    Hawaiian birds are now extinct?
    70%
  81. According to the movie the
    most vulnerable part of the earth is its:
    poles
  82. Ice cores from glaciers can
    be used to determine the ___ at the time the ice was formed:
    temperature/CO2 content
  83. According to the movie, the
    ten hottest years on record have occurred during the last ___.
    14 years
  84. The melting of the ice caps
    in the North and South Poles was likened to:
    Warming areas around ice which speeds it up
  85. An increase in the global
    mean temperatures of 5 degrees would result in a ___ increase at the
    poles
    2 degree
  86. If the ice caps in
    Greenland melted completely, sea level would rise by:
    20 feet
  87. The only two developed
    countries that have not signed the international treaty to limit carbon
    dioxide emissions into the atmosphere are:
    United States and Australia
  88. In the next 50 years the
    carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere will:
    • Current energy use coupled
    • with increasing demand are likely to cause CO2 atmospheric concentrations to
    • more than double in the next 50 years

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