male reproductive system.txt

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Anonymous
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85508
Filename:
male reproductive system.txt
Updated:
2011-05-12 18:44:28
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male reproductive system
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anat & physio
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  1. gonads
    aka testes: produce sperm & secrete hormones
  2. Ducts in the male reproductive system & role
    • Epididymis: site of sperm maturation
    • ductus deferens
    • ejaculatory ducts
    • urethra
    • AID in transport and storing sperm, assisting their maturation and conveying them to exterior
  3. Accessory glands in male reproductive system & role
    • Seminal vesicles
    • prostate
    • bulbourethral glands
    • AID in adding secretions to semen
  4. Supporting stuctures in male reproductive system
    Scrotum supports testes & penis delivers sperm to female reproductive tract
  5. Scrotal Septum
    • Internally divides scrotum into 2 sacs, each w/single testis
    • Made of subcutaneous layer & dartos muscle
    • Cremaster muscle is associated w/each testis
  6. Sperm production conditions
    • Require 2-3celcius below core body temp to grow
    • Cremaster & dartos muscle contract or relax to help achieve this
  7. Testicles
    • Sperm produced here thru SPERMATOGENESIS
    • Each of 200-300 lobules contain 1-3 seminiferous tubules
  8. Sperm forming cells (in order from beginning to maturation)
    primary spermatocytes -> secondary spermatocytes -> spermatids -> sperm cells -> lumen
  9. Sertoli cells or sustenacular cells
    • Support cells through:
    • nourishing spermatocytes, spermatids & sperm
    • Phagocytizing excess spermatid cytoplasm
    • Controlling movements of spermatogenic cells
    • Releasing sperm into lumen
    • Produce fluid for sperm transport
    • Secrete Inhibin
    • Regulate effects of Testosterone & FSH
  10. Leydig cells location & role
    • found between seminiferous tubules
    • Help secrete Testosterone
  11. Spermatogenesis cycle
    • Takes 65-75 days
    • 1. spermatogonia (2n): Sperm undergo mitosis & some development
    • 2. primary spermatocytes (2n): each duplicates its DNA
    • 3. Meiosis 1 (n): homologous pairs line up, crossing over occurs. 2 haploid cells at end of Meiosis 1..each chromosome has 2 chromatids
    • 4. Meisosis 2 (n): the 2 chromatids seperate into spermatids form (4 haploid cells)
    • cells remain attached by CYTOPLASMIC Bridges
    • 5. Spermiogenesis: spherical spermatids into elongated SPERM. Acrosome and flagella form, mitochondria multiply.
    • Sertoli cells dispose of excess cytoplasm
    • Spermiation: releasing from connections to Sertoli cells
    • sperm not yet able to swim
  12. How many sperm go through spermatogenesis per day
    300mil sperm
  13. How long can sperm survive in female reproductive tract
    48hrs
  14. Sperm Anatomy
    • Head:
    • contains nucleus & 23 chromosomes (haploid - n). Acrosome also here - a vesicle with oocyte penetrating enzymes.
    • Tail:
    • neck contains centrioles forming microtubules comprising remainder of tail
    • Middle piece has mitochondria
    • Principle piece is longest portion
    • End piece is the terminal portion
  15. Hormone Levels and roles to spermatogenesis at puberty
    • secretion of GnRH INCREASES
    • stimulates anterior pituitary to INCREASE secretion of LH and FSH
    • LH stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone...which suppresses further LH & GnRH (via neg feedback)
    • Testosterone is then converted to DHT via Enzyme 5 alpha-reductase
    • FSH and testosterone act on SERTOLI cells to stimulate secretion of androgen-binding protein (ABP)
    • Sertoli cells release INHIBIT, inhibiting FSH
    • Testosterone stimulates spermatogenesis
  16. Androgens (testosterone & DHT) role
    • DHT: stimulates Devel. of EXTERNAL genitalia
    • stimulate devel. of male sex characteristics (organs & 2ndary sex char @ puberty)
    • contribute to male sex BEHAVIOR
    • contribute to Spermatogenesis
    • Contribute to Sex DRIVE (libido)
  17. Epididymis
    • Site of sperm maturation: where it acquires motility & ability to fertilize
    • Sperm storage (for several months)
    • Continues on as ductus (vas) deferens
  18. Ductus (Vas) Deferens
    • Conveys sperm during arousal thru peristaltic contractions
    • Sperm storage (for several months)
  19. Ejaculatory Ducts
    • Union of ducts from seminal vesicle & ampulla of ductus (vas) deferens
    • ends in Prostatic urethra
    • Ejects sperm & seminal vesicle secretions just before release of semen into urethra
  20. Urethra
    • shared terminal duct of reproductive & urinary systems
    • Ends @ urethral orifice
  21. Seminal Vesicles
    • contain 60% of semen volume
    • Secrete alkaline fluid (contains fructose, clotting proteins from blood)
  22. Prostate
    • contains 25% of semen volume
    • Secretes milky, acidic fluid (citric acid, proteolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase & seminalplasmin (antibiotic)
  23. Bulbourethral glands
    • Secretes alklaine fluid that PROTECTS passing sperm by NEUTRALIZING acids from urine (in urethra)
    • Mucus lubricates end of penis & lining of urethra
  24. Erection physiology
    • Parasympathetic fibers release & cause local production of Nitric oxide (NO)
    • NO causes smooth muscle in arterioles to RELAX & dilate, allowing large amounts of BLOOD to enter penis.

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