This is most often caused by an infection produced by a bacteria which produces a Shiga toxin. This can be produced by several different species of bacteria, including certain strains of E. coli, Shigella, and others. The Shiga toxin is absorbed into the blood stream from the gut; it binds to and damages endothelial cells all over the body, but particularly the endothelial cells in capillaries of glomeruli of the kidney. Thus, it features prominent renal involvement.
It is a syndrome of renal abnormalities and microangiopathic hemolysis. It is most common in childhood. It frequently follows an episode of bloody diarrhea, and may occur in epidemics.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)