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2011-05-12 21:26:42


Biology 100 Final
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  1. DNA fingerprinting is used to...
    compare DNA patterns
  2. Combining DNA from two different sources results in...
  3. Which of the following local crops will not be genetically engineered in Hawaii?
    Taro (Chinese)
  4. Gene guns are used to...
    Shoot gold pellets coated with RNA or DNA into cells
  5. Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to include...
    Marigold and daffodil to give it more vitamin A
  6. Genetic engineering is
    The direct manipulation of genes. It involves insertion of genetic material from one organism to another. It results in recombinant
  7. “GMO” stands for
    Genetically Modified Organism
  8. Antisense DNA or RNA is...
    DNA or RNA that turns off genes. Makes things grow slower: cancer cells, HIV by targeting protein in virus, ripens fruits slower
  9. The first genetically modified animal to be commercially marketed will probably be
  10. In the 1990s on the Big Island, what lethal disease was destroying a major crop?
    Papaya ring spot virus
  11. The European Corn Borer is a major pest of corn, which can be controlled with BT toxin made from
    Soil Bacterium
  12. A University of New Mexico study found that most
    Americans did not know they had been eating _________ for over five years.
    GM Foods
  13. What genetically modified corn variety was only
    supposed to be used for animal feed, but turned up in human foods?
  14. BT corn pollen was shown by entomologist John Losey
    to be lethal to...
    Monarch Butterflies
  15. The following organization is against the growing of genetically modified crops.
    Earth's Liberation Front
  16. The corn crop of Mexico grows very poorly because of...
    Toxic Aluminum in soil
  17. Embryonic stem cells for therapy may be produced by
    “Harvested” stem cells which are made up of bone, muscle, and nerve tissues
  18. At what stage of development are embryonic stem cells obtained?
    embryonic stage
  19. Which type of stem cell reside in differentiated cells
    undifferentiated cells
  20. Before the cell reprogramming break through federal funds could only be spent on...
    research on human embryonic stem cell lines that already exist
  21. Who was the first person to develop human embryonic stem cell lines?
    James Thomson
  22. Which of the following diseases can be treated using stem cells?
    Parkinson’s Disease, Type I Diabetes, Leukemia, Heart Disease,
 Rheumatoid Arthritis
  23. What country leads the world in stem cell research?
  24. Which of the following are types of adult stem cells?
    Found in brain, heart, skin, muscle, bone marrow
  25. Which of the following is included in the definition of species
    Biological Species (most common), ecological, and evolutionary species concept.
  26. “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”
    it is Ernst Haeckel’s theory that attempts to explain similarities between humans and other animals. Suggests all vertebrate embryos develop in a similar way and points to common origin in evolutionary line.
  27. The species concept that species are reproductively isolates is known as
    Biological species (groups of interbreeding natural populations)
  28. A mule is not a true species because
    mules are sterile and cannot reproduce
  29. Where is adaptive radiation most commonly found?
    in remote and isolated areas
  30. Darwin’s finches are an example of what type of speciation?
    allopatric speciation: species forming through geographical separation
  31. Which of the following would be an example of adaptive radiation?
    silverswords, lobelioids, honeycreepers, land snails
  32. Sympatric speciation
    species forming at the same place and time
  33. Why are invasive species successful in new environments?
    they are free of predators, competitors, diseases and parasites that limit their populations in natural habitat, exploits resources
  34. What is a naturalization plant?
    an established self-perpetuating plant, widespread dispersal & incorporation into native flora/ecosystem
  35. Why is Hawaii particularly at risk from biological invaders?
    Honolulu is an international port. Lots of tourists, trade, and imported goods.
  36. What is the most common way alien plants are introduced to Hawaii today?
    Ornamental plant trade (70% of Hawaii’s alien plants)
  37. What is a biological invader?
    An invasive or alien species that may cause environmental harm when they establish a new home, reproduce, and spread in their new home.
  38. What is a consequence of invasive species on native plant species?
    it alters important nutrient cycling, affects hydrology (water flow), disrupts the ecosystem processes and competes with the natives
  39. How are ocean’s impacted by invasive species?
    because of ocean-going vessels & commercial fishers, it changes the biodiversity & distribution of marine organisms along coastlines, algae overgrowth on coral
  40. What are the characteristics of invasive plants?
    propagules (seeds&spores) dispersed by wind, animals, water. High reproduction, rapid growth rate, significant defense mechanism, quick maturation
  41. Biodiversity is defined as?
    number & variety of organisms found w/in an area
  42. 75% of Hawaii’s flowering plant species arrived by?
    birds (wing)
  43. Hawaiian honeycreepers primarily differ by the shape and size of their
  44. The process whereby many species evolve from a single species is called
  45. There are about ___ native flowering plant species in Hawaii and a thousand introduced ones that are now ___.
    270-280 (980) and naturalized
  46. Native habitats in Hawaii have been lost due to
    Human impacts
Crop lands, Cattle grazing, Feral animals, Urbanization
  47. Alone species may be controlled by...
    Fencing, Biological control, Weeding, Herbicide, Hunting
  48. Native species that are only found in HI are ___ while those found elsewhere are ____.
    endemic and indigenous
  49. Why is conservation biology described as a “crisis discipline”?
    it emerged as a response to biodiversity crisis, a synthetic fied, a mixture of applied & theoretical fields
  50. The Endangered Species Act was created in ___?
  51. Listing species as Endangered is based upon____
    scientific data not economics, almost extinct
  52. IUCN stands for...
    International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources
  53. Conservation biology is considered a synthetic field because
    it is a mixture of applied and theoretical fields
  54. A species that is likely to become endangered in the near future is called?
  55. What is the IUCN Red List?
    a list of threatened species, Provides taxonomic, conservation status, and distribution information on taxa that are facing a high risk of global extinction.
  56. What is likely to become the greatest environmental problem of the next century?
    impending water crisis; supply fresh water altered by pollution, forests&wetlands destroyed, global weather patterns changed.
  57. How do super bacteria arise?
    Overuse of antibiotics
  58. Why is it hard to treat the common cold?
    Many strains of virus/impossible to make vaccines - mutates a lot
  59. What missing protein leads to diabetes?
    Lack of insulin production by gene
  60. A benign tumor
    is not cancerous, can be surgically removed, usually doesn’t return, & doesn’t spread to other tissues
  61. Cancer can be caused by which of the following?
    Over stimulated cell division, recognition of “braking signal” to stop is ignored
  62. Which of the following mechanisms may result in cancer?
    uncontrolled cell division, cancer cell undergoes repeated division & no differentiation, resources diverted to cell division instead of metabolism.
  63. Which of the following are treatment options for cancers?
    Surgery, Radiation, Chemotherapy
  64. Normal genes that inhibit cell invasion are called?
    Tumour Suppressor Genes
  65. The problem with scientists’ conclusions when studying history is...
    Scientists attempt to “predict” the past. Often attributing events or trends to a single phenomenon, i.e. Caporael’s witchcraft interpretation.
  66. The purpose of MKULTRA was...
    CIA was looking for truth inducing drug, experimented on people w/out their knowledge, funded university researchers to do research on LSD
  67. Albert Hofmann was...
    the first to synthesize LSD-25, in 1938, from lysergic acid isolated from ergot.
  68. The acronym LSD stands for
    Lyserg Saure-Diethylamid. German name of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide.
  69. An event that contributed to start of acid rock is: began in SF, Owsley Stanley, chemist, provided LSD, Innovations
    First light shows used during music. “Free form” concerts.
  70. The red dog experience was...
    held in Nevada in the Red Dog Saloon. It was an experience w/ unknown bands: Jefferson airplane & big brother & the holding company, the charlatan, quicksilver messenger service
  71. LSD was, in part, responsible for...
    becoming a recreational drug
  72. Hofmann first synthesized LSD 25, in
  73. Biologists tried to attract the rare Kauai o'o by using
    mating calls on a tape recorder
  74. The Hawaiian carnivorous caterpillar turned into a ______.
  75. Who won the battle between the ant and the carnivorous caterpillar?
  76. Species extinctions were described in the movie as _______on spaceship Earth.
    popping rivets
  77. Biologists are pollinating plants on Molokai's sea cliffs because what pollinator had gone extinct
    there was only one bird who's beak could fit in the flower, and it has gone extinct
  78. Of all the scourages of the native Hawaiian rainforest the worst is the
    feral pigs
  79. Approximately 80,000 feathers were used to make what?
    Ali’I capes
  80. What percentage of native Hawaiian birds are now
  81. According to the movie, the most vulnerable part of the earth is its:
  82. Ice cores from glaciers can be used to determine the ___ at the time the ice was formed.
    temperature/ CO2 content
  83. According to the movie, the ten hottest years on record have occurred during the last ___.
    14 years
  84. The melting of the ice caps in the North and South Poles was likened to...
    there was only one bird who's beak could fit in the flower, and it has gone extinct
  85. An increase in global mean temperatures of 5 degrees would result in a ___ increase at the poles.
    12 degrees
  86. If the ice caps in Greenland melted completely, sea level would rise by...
    20 ft
  87. The only two developed countries that have not signed the international treaty to limit carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere are
    United States & Australia
  88. In the next 50 years the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere will
    Current energy use coupled with increasing demand are likely to cause CO2 atmospheric concentrations to more than double in the next 50 years